A Study on Green Crime
My topic is
Assignment 2: Formal Outline- GREEN CRIME
Due Week 4 and worth 150 points
The purpose of the Formal Outline is for students to organize their research and show the topical areas that they will cover throughout the Research Project. By breaking down the literature into various sections, topics, sub-topics, and details, students can divide large amounts of data into smaller, more orderly sections. The Formal Outline helps students organize their thoughts, stay on topic, and follow a logical order. It also provides students with the opportunity to show a progression of thought and direction, and can highlight specific areas of the Research Project that may need more or less attention.
Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:
- Provide an Introduction, Body, and Conclusion.
- Identify the main points and sections of the Research Project.
- Identify the sub-topics and details consistent with the main points and sections.
- Present information in an organized and logical manner.
- Use at least three (3) scholarly sources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia, Ask.com, Answers.com and general websites do not qualify as scholarly.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
- Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12),
with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or
school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional
- Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
- Use technology and information resources to research issues in
crime and criminal behavior.
- Write clearly and concisely about criminal justice topics using proper writing mechanics and APA conventions.
To review the assignment overview for the term, click here.
Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.
Click here to view the grading rubric.
A Study on Green Crime
Green crimes include water pollution, air pollution, dumping of toxic wastes, and species decline are crimes against the environment and they are linked to globalization and transnational boundaries. The world today is a global risk community because environmental risks in this era are mostly man made. Environmental crimes rank second as the world’s largest illegal business after drug and weapon trade. A study on green crime is important because most nations have adopted the idea of risk consciousness thus making green crime a socio-political agenda. More so, green crimes are large scale, organized and transnational and yet the largest percentage of these crimes goes undetected or they are solved relatively slow despite the substantial gains from mitigating these crimes (South, 2014). Penalties for green crimes are generally light with major offences being left out of categories of organized crimes for which law enforcement resources and legal tools are provided. Challenges generated by organized, transnational green crimes surpass political or national boundaries and they require coordination of strong international institutions and legislative measures that effectively address and limit the success of the green crime syndicates. This paper seeks to examine the effects of the different types green crimes and measures put in place to counter the crimes. This is because there are large gaps in knowledge of green crimes especially emerging types such as carbon credit fraud.
- Kyoto Protocol
Carbon trading has a damaging effect on the world to combat climate change in an effective and timely manner. Most countries signed the Kyoto protocol, with the exception of USA, to allow carbon trading as a measure towards reducing greenhouse gases emissions to an acceptable level. The global community needs to get carbon-trading standards right because the largest polluters continue to avoid global warming issues by their refusal to adopt the Kyoto protocol. For example, large CO 2 polluters such as India and China sign the carbon emission code of behavior (Rosen, 2015). Lack of commitment towards reducing carbon emissions and consequently global warming by the most polluting industries renders any environment scheme null and void.
- Carbon credit fraud
However, multinationals use loopholes in the Kyoto protocol and other environment laws to make gains from carbon trading. Industries with carbon limits inflate expected emission levels with the aim of claiming a greater government allocation of carbon limits. For instance, in the European Union emission trading schemes, electricity companies in five European Union boosted their baselines by up to 110 billion in profits by inflating the projected emission levels while at the same time charging high prices to consumers (Chan, 2010). Secondly, large companies set up special purpose entities in off shore tax havens to create carbon-offset projects. Roundtrip swindles occur when the special entities charge the company more money to develop an offset project and the parent company keeps the remaining amount as revenue. Carbon offset projects in tax havens allow companies to evade tax and carbon emission regulation, and add to about 11 trillion in revenue (Chan, 2010).
- Waste management crimes
International organizations such as Interpol, G8, european Union, United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute recognize illicit trade and dumping of toxic wastes as a major green crime. Public administration and companies mostly dump liquid waste in water bodies. Toxic wastes from the factories should be dumped in a controlled and environmentally friendly manner, but this is not always the case. Some manufacturing plants releases wastes into the rivers and lake aquifers which harms aquatic life and the toxic substances that seep into the soil destroys fauna in the surrounding area, consequently affecting the food chain. illegal waste water management practices continue to flourish because good governance and regulation is lacking. More often than not, there are weak regulations on the matter as well as corruption in developing states. More so, there are different interpretations from country to country of what is regarded as ‘waste’, ‘hazardous’, or ‘illegal dumping’ (White & Graham, 2015). The legal framework in most developing nations fails to explicitly define or prevent waste management.
The idea of high profits and low risk drives crime syndicates to participate environmental crimes such as poor wastewater management and air pollution. however, an environmentally engaged criminology is important in contributing towards reducing climate change because it helps policy makers and activists to identify issues that negatively affect the environment and produce evidence that supports arguments for risk consciousness as well as influence practice of measures put in place in the socio-political global space (South, 2014). The level of carbon emissions continues to escalate despite enactment of the Kyoto protocol and regulatory measures such as carbon trading and the global community is far from finding sustainable green energy sources (Chan, 2010). As much as there are policy instruments in existence to control carbon emissions, there is need to create legislation that promotes the best available low carbon infrastructure and early disbursement of alternative energy technology especially in the industrialized nations.
Chan, M. (2010). Ten ways to game the carbon market. Friends of the Earth, May.
Rosen, A. M. (2015). The wrong solution at the right time: The failure of the Kyoto protocol on climate change. Politics & Policy, 43(1), 30-58.
South, N. (2014). Green criminology: Reflections, connections, horizons. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 3(2).
White, R., & Graham, H. (2015). Greening justice: examining the interfaces of criminal, social and ecological justice. British Journal of Criminology, 55(5), 845-865.