Abortion: Is Not Ethically Justifiable?
Instructions: It is critical for this paper that your arguments is based on an Ethical Moral Principle outlined in chapter 1 of the attached text book.
Additionally, There are two components; First, an Annotated Bibliography and Second, the Final Paper-
Abortion: Is Not Ethically Justifiable?
Abortion has been an issue in arguing its ethical justifiability (Caplan & Arp, 2013). Abortion is the removal of the fetus before conception. In this paper, I will reflect on the current debates about abortion. Questions may arise on whether abortion is ethically justifiable or not. By philosophical thoughts, there are two extreme views that concern abortion namely: pro-choice and pro-life. Pro-life beliefs suggest that abortion is against the morals, and it is not ethically justifiable.pro-choice Beliefs suggest that abortion is ethically justifiable and is morally right. Personally, after integrating these views about abortion. I argue that abortion not is ethically justifiable.
Firstly, as a pro-life believer, human beings have the absolute right to life. The value of life principles suggests that life is a necessity possession and that every person experiences life in a unique pattern. Individuals must be treated in a unique way. However, this principle does not fully entail that ending a human life is justifiable, rather is it entails that human life should not be terminated with an adamant defense or justification. Consequently, it is morally wrong to end a human life. From a medical perspective, after three months the fetus has already developed features that human beings possess.
Secondly, the principle of individual freedom states that individuals have the freedom to choose their means and ways of being moral within the framework of the other four moral principles. People’s moral beliefs are entirely influenced by the emotions, fears, and affections which may in turn influence their judgment framework (Newman & Newman, 2012). Such judgmental ground inflicted or affected by emotions and fears may lead to irrational thoughts. A mother’s attitude towards fetus is debatable depending on how she acquired pregnancy. In instances of rape, as a pro-life believer, I would argue that the emotions and fears that the mother had during the immoral act of rape might justify abortion. Also, there are those instances that the mother deliberately engages in sexual intercourse without knowing its consequences. Later on, she decides to abort the fetus. Such a decision is not ethically justifiable even if the emotions and fears about the infant are manipulated.
Genetics suggest that life begins at the development of the fetus. Philosophy suggests that human are rational beings and that killing a fetus is morally wrong because it possesses a genetic make -up that people possess (Beckwith, 2004). Concerns are present in the field of medicine and psychology about abortion which suggest that there are some medical number psychological effects of abortion on women. These effects are harmful to the body of a human. Such medical and psychological effects place human beings at a standpoint on whether to perform the act of abortion or not. With rising technological developments in the medical field, it is termed as unnecessary to perform an act of abortion. Most women are now aware of alternatives to abortion like adoption. Therefore, I assert that destruction of the human fetus is not justified at all. Also, abortion causes pain to a fetus that ultimately results in killing (Ryder, 2005).
Autonomy as a principle of distributive justice in the bioethics, suggests that each person treated similarly and equitably. It argued that ethical considerations of the principle of justice majorly root to all human beings being given the same entitlement. Pro-choice believers suggest that to determine whether abortion is morally wrong or right we use the principle of autonomy. This principle suggests that a woman has a right to do anything with his body whatsoever. In opposing this argument, the principle of non-maleficence suggests that harm is done to a fetus hence the act is immoral. Also, the principle of beneficence suggests as professional in the medical field we should aim at doing good to our client. Case in point, if a woman wants to perform an abortion, it does good to the patient but rather it is against non-maleficence principle on harming the fetus. Even though it is a form of an ethical dilemma in scenarios of abortion, it is not justifiable culturally.
As a pro believer, it is evident that women always fancy control of their bodies. Basing on this thought, it is efficient to acclaim that women have overall control on the use of contraceptives to avoid unsolicited pregnancies. Therefore, it is one’s responsibility to take measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Therefore, in any case of unwanted pregnancies, women should assume full responsibility for her actions, rather than terminate the fetus (Casey, 2010).
Legally, abortion is termed as murder, even though this perspective is entirely based on the religion of many cultures in forming laws and norms. It is not justifiable to commit abortion when the laws are strictly against that act. Human beings live a society governed and controlled by law. Therefore, as an individual who abide by these laws, we take full responsibility for our actions, and we let the law state the punishment for committing a crime such as abortion. Even though some countries are legalizing abortion, there are guidelines on why, how and when abortion should take place (Warren, 1973).
Conclusively, Don Marquis suggest that murdering humans is not right because it denies them a future individual life of value and therefore abortion is morally a form of murder as the fetus is deprived of its future life (Caplan & Arp, 2013). In general, issues surrounding abortion are gigantic, and there will always be those who are strongly for it or against it. As human beings are entitled to do anything we want with our bodies but it is not morally justifiable to harm other people and deny them the value of life. In my personal belief, I support the pro-life belief with a few adjustments to pro-choice belief. Abortion is harm to other lives yet to be conceived. If there is a strong, justifiable reason to perform an abortion, like rape, then it is ethically justifiable. However, in the light of inadequate reasons, like unprotected sex, then abortion is not justifiable.
Beckwith, F. (2004). The Explanatory Power of the Substance View of Persons. Christian Bioethics, 10, 33–54.
Caplan, A. L., & Arp, R. (2013). The Deliberately Induced Abortion of a Human Pregnancy Is Not Ethically Justifiable. In A. L. Caplan, R. Arp, A. L. Caplan, & R. Arp (Eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics (Vol. 27, pp. 176-187). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Casey, P. R. (2010). Abortion among Young Women and Subsequent Life Outcomes. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 24(4), 491-502.
Newman, B., & Newman, R. (2012). Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Belmont, California, United States of America: Wadsworth.
Ryder, R. (2005, August 5). All beings that feel pain deserve human rights: Equality of the species is the logical conclusion of post-Darwin morality. Retrieved from The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/aug/06/animalwelfare
Warren, M. A. (1973). On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion. The Monist, 57, 43–6.