Instructions:-This essay is NOT a summary of several different elements of ADHD. Rather, it is an analysis of a single trend related to ADHD, including various elements of that single trend.
Your review should include at least five scholarly sources outside of class texts.
Label or Identify the Subject: Provide the name for the trend and provide some context or background for the subject.
Explain the Subject: Find a pattern of meaning in the trend (e.g., speculate as to causes and effects of an event, compare with a similar case, or offer an example).
Make a Judgment/Offer an Opinion: Evaluate the trend using third person; offer praise or critique the trend, offering evidence to support your claims.
Mystery Behind ADHD Medication: is it truly safe?
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is a common neuropsychological disorder that majorly occurs in children and early adolescents (Meaux, Hester, Smith, & Shoptaw, 2006). As a neurobehavioral disorder, ADHD is estimated to affect 2-18 percent of teenagers and children in the United States(cite). Due to the increase in diagnosis of ADHD, there is a greater need to explore the different forms of drug therapy that are administered to patients. Some of the prescriptions that are used for ADHD patients are Ritalin, Adderall, and other drugs, in particular for children of age 6-11 (Graham, et al., 2011). This paper will review the mystery behind medication of ADHD and to how safe are these drugs to ADHD patients. Studies show that treatments of ADHD in teenagers and children are not accompanied with appropriate consultations with the medical officials such as therapists and pediatricians. Many have questioned the effectiveness of drug therapy in ADHD treatment and how are the drugs affecting the mind of children and teenagers.
Another treatment for ADHD in children under the age of 11 is the use of synthetic Amphetamines. These drug therapy is used in treating both severe and moderate phases of ADHD. The most common drug used for ADHD treatment in adolescents is Ritalin. Other commonly prescribed drugs for this disorder are Concerta, Metadate CD and ER, Focalin and so on. These drugs have created many controversies from caregivers and doctors. Though the drugs have yielded better results like improvement in student’s grades, they have also come with the side-effects such hallucinations, severe mood swings and aggression behaviors in teenagers and children.
These drugs have been found to have side effects that are fatal to patients. To begin, Ritalin and Focalin have the following side effects; insomnia, weight loss, headaches, and irritability. Concerta as a form of drug therapy exposes the patient to aggravations, hostility, mild abdominal pains, increase in blood pressure, allergic reactions and psychosis. On the other hand, when a patient is administered with Adderall, he/she might experience dry mouth, loss of appetite. Nausea, dizziness, urinary tract infections, fever, and heartburns. Also, drugs like Dexedrine and Methylin can cause nervousness, overstimulation, restlessness and can even cause severe effects like Tourette’s syndrome (Jackson & Peters, 2008).
In 1930, amphetamine was one of the prescribed drug for children under the age 11 with ADHD children. The drug was recommended by doctors in Germany. Contrary to its benefits, during World War II, millions of amphetamine tablets were given to soldiers to keep the awake and aware of their enemies. It is believed to cause psychosis-like aggression in some soldiers. Redlich, 2000, p. 311, states that Hitler was one of the addicted consumers of this drug through injection. To add on, Ritalin and other stimulants can bind and attach themselves to the receptors on the forebrain. The forebrain is the most significant part of the brain since it is highly developed and the center of the brain. It is clear that Ritalin causes a disruption in the reticular activity of the brain that results into impairments in awareness level, energy levels and one’s response to the external stimuli.
Recommendations and Opinions
I can recommend that, for children under the age of 11 should not be given Ritalin or any other above mentioned drugs as a method of treating. These side effects that the drugs pose to our body and our mind are rather harsh and fatal. Research has it that, Pharmaceuticals should outline the major side effects of the new drug on the block and assure the public if the drug is safe and effective before approval by the FDA. Though most of the side effects of the drugs used to treat ADHD did not show up until years after approval by the FDA, doctors and researchers suggest that children have a higher risk of experiencing adverse side effects than adults.
Exercise, cognitive therapy, and specific diets are some of the recommended treatment of ADHD (Magyary & Brandt, 2002). To begin with exercise helps the patient in stopping the impulsivity and immediate gratification tendencies of ADHD because it activates the activities of the frontal cortex. Exercise is used as a fertilizer to the brain. It also increases the rate neurogenesis. Also, another effective method to treat ADHD is the use cognitive therapy. Research suggests that children with ADHD have a shortage in cognitive skills. Through learning and rehearsing of self-directed instructions to help the accomplish a given task. Also, self-control and calming techniques can help children reduce anger and be able to form better problem-solving skills. In school, most teachers must encourage students to take part in resource or withdrawal. This program nurtures students wholly. To add on, specific diet can also help in treatment of ADHD (Millichap & Yee, 2012).
Conclusively, doctors have not yet established the core cause of ADHD. The best-known cause if genetics. Indeed, the use of these drugs in treating ADHD is not safe. The outlined side effects of the disease are rather overwhelming. Parents and doctors should be able to finish up the procedures involved drug therapy. Most of the parent will just cease following up on their children just after they have seen some improvement in their academic work. I prefer that use of exercise and cognitive therapy are the most efficient way to tackle kids with ADHD. Also, pharmaceuticals should be able to stipulate the side effects of drugs that come into the populace and make sure it is effective for the body and mind of a kid. The FDA should also be strict before approving any new drug in the market.
Graham, J., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Coghill, D., Danckaerts, M., Dittmann, R. W., & Hulpke-Wette, M. (2011). European Guidelines on Managing Adverse Effects of Medication for ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(1), 17-37.
Jackson, D., & Peters, K. (2008). Use of Drug Therapy in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Maternal Views and Experiences. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(20), 2725-2732.
Magyary, D., & Brandt, P. (2002). A Decision Tree and Clinical Paths for the Assessment and Management of Children with ADHD. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 23(6), 553-566.
Meaux, J. B., Hester, C., Smith, B., & Shoptaw, A. ,. (2006). Stimulant Medications: A Trade‐off? The Lived Experience of Adolescents With ADHD. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 11(4), 214-226.
Millichap, J. G., & Yee, M. M. (2012). The Diet Factor in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Pediatrics, 129(2), 330-337.
Redlich, F. (2000). Hitler’s Diagnosis. The Journal of Nervous and Mental disease, 188(5), 311.