For this assignment you will complete a summary review of an APUS Online Library scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article
This assignment requires a single evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal article, not an opinion publication or one reviewing or summarizing multiple writings or researchers’ experimental studies. Evidence-based means the article reports on a single experiment conducted by an article’s author(s). Peer-reviewed means an article in an academic journal that had to be approved by the journal’s editorial panel of scientific discipline experts. Trade journals and commercial/popular publications do not qualify for the assignment.
Because it reports on a single article, this assignment will only have one publication, the article you are summarizing, listed in the required APA formatted attached Reference list. Submissions not meeting this requirement cannot be assigned points. This paper will include a description of the article’s main focus, a description of the experimental methodology (including the study sample, measures and analyses used, etc.), discussion of the results and related conclusions reached by the article’s authors, and a substantive closing paragraph describing two to three future research ideas inspired by the article.
It’s common knowledge, that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is not only a childhood disorder but also persists into adulthood. Despite this knowledge, there has been little attention in this area. Studies indicate that it’s only recently that adult ADHD has received widespread clinical attention. This neglect is evidenced by the glaring omission of adult ADHD in any of the major epidemiological data for the last few decades. The above article discusses the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States, an area that has largely been ignored in previous studies.
Sample selection and methodology
In this study, Kessler, et al (2006) screened adults for ADHD and included the results in a probability subsample (N=3,199) for a sample whose demographic characteristics included an age group of 18-44 years old respondents who were included in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, which is a house hold survey with national representation. This survey uses a lay-administered interview that is diagnostic in nature and was utilized to screen for a broad spectrum DSM-IV disorders. Using a sample size of 154 respondents, blind follow-up interviews that were clinical in nature were carried out, with a bias on those with positive results. To estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD, multiple imputation methods was utilized.
In their work, the authors utilized the multiple imputations to assign the predicted clinically assessed adult ADHD, to those respondents that did not participate in subsequent interviews. The authors initially selected ten pseudo samples of the size 154 who replaced the 154 respondents in the clinical sample. The resultant imputations were utilized in the creation of 10 separate data sets followed by extensive analysis. The parameters estimates were then averaged to obtain multiple imputations with variances in parameter estimates being combined through standard multiple averaging.
In 10 multiple imputation replications, a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate sociodemographic correlates. Comorbidity of the data was then assessed through multiple imputation estimates of odd ratios to establish the relationship between ADHD and related DSM-IV disorders for a controlled group of 5 years of age. A multiple imputation logistic regression system was also used to estimate functional disabilities, with the use of Taylor Series method of linearizationemployed to estimate all parameters. For this study, the statistical significance estimated using the Wald Chi-square tests was estimated at an alpha level of 0.05
The researchers established that prevalence level for an adult American for ADHD was 4.4%. They further established that the predisposing factors for ADHD were being male, previous marriage history, unemployment and being non-Hispanic white. The results of the study also indicated that there was a high comorbidity between adult ADHD and many DSM-IV disorders, which was closely associated with role impairment, it was also established that most of the adult ADHD cases were untreated, although there was compelling evidence that many individuals had made attempts to obtain treatment for other mental and substance-related conditions. Despite the significant interest that has recently been registered on this subject, there was little focus on its prevalence and correlates, especially in the United States.
Conclusion and recommendation
The study concludes that despite popular belief, there is a big constituency of people that suffer from ADHD even in adulthood, estimating the prevalence rate at 4.4%. The study also concludes that there is a need for increased diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Despite the findings of the study, it’s recommended that there is a need for further research, aimed at establishing there is a relationship between effective treatment of ADHD and reduction of the onset and severity of ADHD and other opportunistic disorders.
This study highlights some of the inherent deficiencies in the United States epidemiological studies, where research does not extend to other demographic characteristics. It also establishes the glaring inadequacies of the US health information systems especially concerning ADHD in adults. This study inspires further research of ADHD in adults and correlates in other parts of the world and not just the United States. For conclusiveness, it further research should include the available treatment options for ADHD in adults, cost implications and success rates.
Kessler, et al. (2006), The Prevalence and Correlates of Adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication’, sought to establish the prevalence of adult ADHD in the United States.’ Available at:http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/220163737?pq-origsite=summon