Management and Organisational Behaviour
(personality and individual differences, attitudes and job satisfaction, or motivation at work) and critically appraise and evaluate their relationship to organisational behaviour using relevant theory and models.
This advice is in addition to the assignment brief – make sure you consider all of the points in the assignment brief carefully
Executive summary (about 200 words)
A summary of the entire report (not an introduction – a summary)
Introduction (about 300 words)
An introduction ‘sets the scene’. By that I mean it introduces the topics and tries to engage the reader. For example, why are these topics important to managers and organisations? Then the introduction should state the aim of the assignment and how it will be structured.
Analysis (about 1,500 – 1,800 words)
Select two of the topic areas (personality and individual differences, attitudes and job satisfaction, or motivation at work) and critically appraise and evaluate their relationship to organisational behaviour using relevant theory and models.
Consider, for example, why study the topics? How are they useful to organisations? How are they useful to managers? Critique them i.e. what are the limitations? What might not work in this region? Etc. etc…
Consider a variety of theories and models and use examples
Conclusion (100 – 200 words)
Conclude by summarising the most important points from your analysis
- I would like at least 10 references (with at least 3 from journal articles)
- Remember the marking criteria (see the appendix of the programme handbook)
Further general advice – Consider the following:
- What am I expected to find out about – what is the question asking?
- What do I know about this topic? How much information has the tutor already given me?
- How much time can I give to this particular project?
- Develop an outline first
- Must answer the question!
- Must provide an informed answer to questions – not opinions! i.e. arguments and explanations should be supported by reference to relevant evidence (literature)
- Demonstrate critical thinking
- Use examples
- Well referenced
- Always aim for a professional look and ‘feel’ to the report
- Use diagrams/tables etc. where appropriate – but apply them.
Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is without a doubt an increasingly important aspect of consideration for all managers within the work environment as organizations thrive majorly due to their retention of highly competitive human resources. As such, this paper reviews the influence of the relationship that exists between job satisfaction and employee motivation and that between job satisfaction and organizational culture in view of establishing how such can be used to promote increased performance among employees.
Job satisfaction is considered the most important of all employee attitudes and is defined by Locke (1976) as an emotional state that is positive or pleasurable as a result of one’s job experiences or just the work being appraised. Employees can only be satisfied with their work if they are well motivated to do the same work.
In view of the relationship between job satisfaction, it is clear that all persons within the workplace have their own needs, which they expect the workplace to be cognizant and considerate of and for conditions that would facilitate their meeting of such needs to be established. In this view, it is evident that employees whose needs are met through the management’s manipulation of the work environment to observe such needs become satisfied with their work and develop increased commitment towards the course of the organization.
On the other hand, when it comes to the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational culture, it is clear that the latter allows for creation of an environment that is favorable for the employees not only to perform their duties, but also to experience their own growth as they take part in the management of their role and environment.
In conclusion, it is clear that job satisfaction can
be enhanced among employees through the promotion of motivation practices that
are considerate of the various employee motivators, and through establishing of
corporate cultures that respect the various needs of employees and are accommodating
of their dynamism and contributions.
Considering the increasing competitiveness both in the local and global world of business, it is vital for all organizations that hope to succeed and outperform their competitors to make sure that they propagate the effective development and retention of a workforce that is committed, loyal, and able (Self & Dewald, 2011, p. 60). It is important to note that the management of people within the organization plays a key role in their profitability and productivity. Variance in such aspects could be attributed to the differences that organizations have in terms of employee motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment. Job satisfaction has been widely researched in industrial psychology, with various researchers postulating conflicting ideas concerning the impact of job satisfaction with the performance of the employees. The role of job motivation has been implied by different work motivation theories. On the other hand, work satisfaction theories, including Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Adam’s Equity Theory, Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, Locke’s Discrepancy Theory, and Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, among others, have gone to great lengths to explain the components of job satisfaction and the influence that it has on the performance of the employees (Djordjević, et al., 2015, p. 715).
On a general note, job satisfaction has been associated with motivation, productivity, tardiness/absenteeism, physical/mental health, accidents, and the overall satisfaction with one’s life. It is without question that an individual’s emotional state is influenced by the environment that they interact with. The question of positively influencing the workforce is of great importance to the Human Resource Managers within each organization. This paper is going to address two critical areas of employee attitudes and job satisfaction, including the relationship that exists between job satisfaction and employee motivation and that which exists between job satisfaction and organizational culture. The paper aims at demonstrating the importance of motivation and organizational culture towards influencing job satisfaction among employees, which is a prerequisite for increased employee performance and organizational success.
Definition of Job Satisfaction
Before addressing the three critical areas aforementioned, it is important to establish a general definition of job satisfaction and employee attitudes. Different employees within the organization have varying viewpoints or attitudes towards different elements of their jobs, their organizations, and their careers. Nevertheless, according to research, job satisfaction stands out to be the most important of all employee attitudes. As such, as much as this paper will address the general attitudes among employees, it will focus on job satisfaction, considering its impact on the general performance of the organization. The highly appreciated and upheld definition of job satisfaction is Locke’s (1976) definition which refers to job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (Locke, 1976, p. 1304). Central to the definition by Locke is the essential nature of both feeling, or affect, and thinking, or cognition. As such, it is generally assumed that when individuals engage themselves in thoughts about something, they develop certain feelings towards whatever thing they are thinking about. Conversely, when individuals have feelings concerning certain things, they think about what they feel (Djordjević, et al., 2015, p. 717). There is, thus, an inextricable link between cognition and affect, both from the biological and psychological perspectives. It is thus clear that feeling and thinking have an important role to play in the evaluation of jobs and assessing of employees. This section will review the relationship that exists between employee motivation, corporate culture and job satisfaction.
The Relationship Between Jobs Satisfaction, Employee Motivation, and Organizational Culture
Organizations are faced with a great challenge of ensuring that their workforce is always motivated towards meeting the goals put in place. Influencing job satisfaction requires the proper establishment of measures through which the employee can be motivated. It is important to note that the motivation of employees is an innate force that is defined by various individualistic factors which are prone to change considering the various employee needs and motives. On the other hand, environmental factors could not be said to cause motivation, but rather, they influence the extent to which an individual employee experiences motivation. As such, the behavior of individuals at the workplace is determined by a combination of environmental and innate factors. According to Chang et al. (2011), the motivators of employees at the workplace tend to be the same factors that lead to their satisfaction. As such, the authors establish that employees who are motivated are generally satisfied at work. Employee motivation could hence be said to be manifested through job satisfaction, which is attitudinal, and work performance, which is behavioral, establishing a link between job satisfaction and the performance of employees (Chang, et al., 2011, p. 70).
The Link Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Motivation
Various employee motives and needs represent their dynamism and energy in the workplace. Such needs and motives include the level to which they work under pressure, their need for power and achievement, and the level to which they feel motivated by any competitive environment within their scope of work. Research has shown that the level of motivation among employees and the feeling of their abilities being stretched has a direct influence on their job satisfaction (Thahier, et al., 2014). Each employee within the workplace has his or her goals and objectives, which form their motivation. Hence, when individuals achieve such objectives and goals, they build their self-esteem, an aspect that further reinforces their commitment towards achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. The need to achieve among employees is connected to the need for power, with power being noted as a major determinant of job satisfaction when it comes to those employees who are motivated by such a need.
Another angle of motivation of employees at the workplace involves the synergy that exists between individual employee motivators and work environment characteristics. This includes the level to which employees are motivated by interaction opportunities, tangible recognition and praise, the relationship between their values and those of the organization, opportunities for development and growth, and the need for their security in the workplace (Hsieh, 2016, p. 93). Notably, the need for security is considered as one of the basic needs among employees. In this case, job security is defined as the expectations of an individual concerning their continuation in a given job context and the various concerns regarding the loss of job features that are considered as desirable, including working conditions and promotion opportunities. Job security is considered to be a major determinant of job satisfaction. According to research, some employees are satisfied with their jobs as a result of the satisfaction of their affiliation needs in the workplace. Some of the higher-order and self needs that influence job satisfaction include an environment that matches the values of an individual, recognition of performance, and the various opportunities for development and training that correspond to their self-actualization needs (Hsieh, 2016, p. 98).
Intrinsic motivation refers to facilitating employee motivation through offering them stimulating and meaningful work, increased autonomy, and flexible procedures and structures. According to literature, job satisfaction is positively related to the need for employees to engage in jobs that offer them a challenge, interest, variety and stimulation (Djordjević, et al., 2015, p. 718). As such, when individuals are exposed to jobs that are repetitive in terms of the procedures and content, their job satisfaction levels are likely to go down. Autonomy is also a common innate need among employees and when individuals are exposed to a greater self-regulation scope, they are likely to exhibit increased job satisfaction. When individuals perceive increased control over their jobs, they assume ownership of their work and are more motivated to get the best out of their efforts (Hsieh, 2016, p. 101).
On the other hand, extrinsic motivation refers to facilitating employee motivation through the use of extrinsic factors such as positive prospects of promotion, financial rewards, status and position (Cho & Perry, 2012, p. 391). Extrinsic rewards include those that are visible and tangible to the employees and can be translated into value for their efforts. Monetary rewards are the most common method through which individuals are motivated within the organization and their job satisfaction increased. Finances are required for most of the employees’ individual needs such as food, shelter, and clothing, among others, to be met. As such, employees are likely to feel satisfied with their job, if such a job is able to provide for their needs. Nevertheless, it is important to note that most individuals within the workplace are moving towards other non-monetary needs, including their needs to develop, an aspect that has left organizations that heavily rely on financial incentives to motivate their employees. Most of the senior employees within organizations tend to place more value on recognition and praise as compared to financial rewards. As such, when the self-worth of an individual is affirmed, he or she feels contented with themselves and their jobs, an aspect that influences their satisfaction with their jobs and their performance in the workplace (Cho & Perry, 2012, p. 393). On the other hand, those employees who are highly oriented towards personal achievement tend to be highly motivated by promotion opportunities within the organization since they believe that new promotions will offer them new and increased responsibilities and assumption of top positions within the organization promotes their self-actualization.
Considering the above analysis, it is evident that a clear understanding of both job-related and personal motivators of an individual is important in determining the best approaches to be adopted in facilitating job satisfaction among such individuals. Theories of motivation are important in establishing such an understanding of the needs of individuals, and how such needs are prioritized among different individuals.
The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Culture
Different researchers have established the evidence of an existing relationship between various dimensions of organizational culture and job satisfaction. Such dimensions refer to the various aspects of the organization that affect job satisfaction in addition to the job-related and personal aspects as earlier mentioned. One of the dimensions of organizational culture that is of importance to job satisfaction is “performance”. This dimension involves the concern within the organization with regards to the quality and amount of work carried out, promotion of creativity, and the commercial and customer orientation (Caricati, et al., 2014, p. 986). One area of performance that could be reviewed is the workload, whereby, when organizations assign workloads that are unrealistic to their employees, the job satisfaction of such employees is likely to decrease. Increased workloads strain the employees and lead to fatigue and stress, an aspect that could be attributed to increased employee turnover and reduced performance (Bridger, et al., 2013, p. 1632). Such are characteristic of low employee satisfaction. Moreover, concerns for client and staff security and safety and work output, quality coupled with a culture of creativity and innovation, lead to job satisfaction among the employees. The level of commitment and orientation that ban organization has towards given consumers and the business has an impact on the satisfaction of the employees. Some of the employees are motivated by their ability to give back to the society through their expertise.
Human resources provide another dimension under organizational culture, that is reflective of the policies of the organization regarding the treatment and the value of employees (Körner, et al., 2015, p. 5). Organizations display concern for their staff through exhibiting a supportive attitude in an environment that is people oriented, trusting, and encouraging. When employers exhibit such positive attitudes towards their employees, the latter reciprocate through increased commitment towards the course of the organization, job satisfaction, and group cohesion. In the same vein, the value of non-discrimination is also positively related to job satisfaction, such that when employees are exposed to the same opportunities and shown fairness, they tend to develop satisfaction with their job (Körner, et al., 2015, p. 8).
The decision making dimension of organizational culture is also key in determining employee behavior and attitude within the organization and hence their satisfaction with their work. This dimension refers to the level of formalization within the organization and hierarchical positions through which decisions are made (Dimitrios, et al., 2014, p. 221). In this case, organizations that tend to be highly structured and bureaucratic tend to create environments that are less cognizant of their employees in terms of making decisions that affect the latter. As such, employees from such organizations exhibit reduced commitment and satisfaction with their work. Nevertheless, it is important to note that individual preferences among the employees play a major role in determining how such conditions of work affect the behavior of the employees. As opposed to a hierarchical decision-making approach, a participative approach promotes job satisfaction, especially when the employees are involved in setting standards, making important organizational decisions, problem solving, and are granted a level of autonomy overt their jobs in then organization such that they can independently make decisions in their work in view of promoting their personal development as well as enhancing innovations towards the greater good of the organization (Dimitrios, et al., 2014, p. 228). As such, it is important to note that organizational culture significantly facilitates job satisfaction, with respect to the positive vertical and lateral relationships that are established within the organization, and by the efficient and effective communication among the employees and the management.
It is evident from this paper that motivation of employees to enhance job satisfaction and influence their attitudes towards their work and the organization are key for managers if they are to register increased performance. For job satisfaction to be increased among the employees, it is important for the managers to develop a clear understanding of the existing employee motivations in order to establish measures that would ensure that such employees are adequately motivated towards achievement of organizational goals. When job satisfaction is achieved within the organization, the management is sure of retaining competitive employees and hence maintaining its level of competitiveness in the market place. It is also clear that when trust is upheld, intrinsic motivation holds a stronger leverage on satisfaction. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes in handy, especially for managers when it comes to pushing the employees to go beyond what they would have normally done.
Nevertheless, it is important for managers to
concentrate on intrinsic motivation as it allows for a reduction in the extrinsic
expectancy among the employees and promotes a culture of engaging in the
various organizational activities for the love of their work as opposed to the
love of the tangible outcomes that they get from it (Cho &
Perry, 2012, p. 384). The attitude of employees is clearly
closely related to motivation as employees who fail to feel motivated in their
workplace are affected in terms of the feelings they develop towards their
jobs, the management, and the entire work environment, an aspect that in turn
leads to negative outcomes. Contrary to this, employees who feel highly
motivated tend to develop increased satisfaction with their jobs, an aspect
that propels them to put all their effort in their work in view of performing above
the set expectations.
Bridger, R. S., Day, A. J. & Morton, K., 2013. Occupational stress and employee turnover. Ergonomics, 56(11), pp. 1629-1639.
Caricati, L. et al., 2014. Work climate, work values and professional commitment as predictors of job satisfaction in nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(8), pp. 984-994.
Chang, A., Chan, F., Gudmundsson, A. & Sawang, S., 2011. Motivating Blue-Collar Employees: A Case Study of the Chinese Workforce. Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, Volume 12, pp. 69-85.
Cho, Y. & Perry, J., 2012. Intrinsic Motivation and Employee Attitudes: Role of Managerial Trustworthiness, Goal Directedness, and Extrinsic Reward Expectancy. Review of Public Personnel Administration , 32(4), p. 382–406.
Dimitrios, B., Kastanioti, C., Maria, T. & Dimitris, N., 2014. The Influence of Organizational Culture on Job Satisfaction of Administrative Employees at a Public Hospital: The Case of General Hospital of Larissa. Journal of Health Management, 16(2), pp. 217-231.
Djordjević, D. et al., 2015. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia. Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia, 72(8), pp. 714-721.
Hsieh, J. Y., 2016. Spurious or True? An Exploration of Antecedents and Simultaneity of Job Performance and Job Satisfaction Across the Sectors. Public Personnel Management, 45(1), pp. 90-118.
Körner, M., Wirtz, M. A., Bengel, J. & Göritz, A. S., 2015. Relationship of organizational culture, teamwork and job satisfaction in interprofessional teams. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), pp. 1-12.
Locke, E. A., 1976. The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In: M. D. Dunnette, ed. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, pp. 1297-1349.
Self, T. & Dewald, B., 2011. Why Do Employees Stay? A Qualitative Exploration of Employee Tenure. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, Volume 12, p. 60–72.
Thahier, R., Ridjal, S. & Risani, F., 2014. The Influence Of Leadership Style And Motivation Upon Employee Performance In The Provincial Secretary Office Of West Sulawesi. International Journal Of Academic Research, 6(1).