Instructions: The title is not final it is about Binge drinking amongst college students and effects of binge drinking. This piece needs to be a literature review of 1300 words. It is a part of a project where I have done a questionnaire about binge drinking. It needs to include some studies about binge drinking amongst students in UK.
Please find below some points which are from the brief and needs to be included in the literature review
1.1. Identify and justify a research topic.
1.2. Produce a clearly defined project aim related to the chosen topic.
7.1. Consistently apply relevant academic conventions including:
a) accurate and consistent referencing,
b) appropriate academic written style and ‘voice’.
8.1. Select, explain and analyse the relevance of appropriate secondary sources in responding to the research task.
8.2. Critically analyse and integrate secondary sources (theoretical and / or interpretative) within the response to a question or study.
BINGE DRINKING AMONGST COLLEGE STUDENTS
Binge drinking is significant public health concern that is highly prevalent among college students in the UK. Binge drinking refers to a practice of consuming large amounts of alcohol in a single session of drinking. Individuals often confuse between drinking normally and binge drinking; the difference is that binge drinking involves taking more than eight unit of alcohol for men and five for women(citation). The review focusses on the binge drinking behaviors of college students in the UK and also features the effects associated with binge drinking to these students. College students who practice binge drinking often experience a broad range of negatives effects including health impairments, legal complications, academic failure and increase their chances for instant deaths (White & Hingson, 2014, p. 201).
History of Binge Drinking
In the UK, heavy drinking has characterized alcohol drinking at many periods in the past, but the amount of concern such activity has provoked the public, and the state has varied. Drinking was endemic in the British society from an early period. In the story, History of the Kings of England by William of Malmesbury said that the English are the heavy drinkers. He also says that drinking is a universal practice, where the Knights’ tasks are passed in the entire night and days, they are all supposed to drink and become surfeited. They were to drink until they become sick. Therefore with the history in mind, many college students tend to drink excessive alcohol.
Social Determinants of Indulgence in Binge Drinking
Culture is one of the most vital determinants of drinking patterns and attitudes, according to the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP, n.d). Amongst these patterns and attitudes include those that relate to binge drinking. Some cultures not only condone, but further advocate heavy drinking patterns. Regarding general alcohol consumption, the intake of beer is permissible to adults, and especially men. The view of culture espoused here is not only that of traditional races and tribes but that of the modern social settings such as universities or workplaces. Traditionally, alcohol drinking was part of the rites of passage, particularly those marking entry into adulthood. Today, the university environment acts as a modern cultural setting that advocates binge drinking. In fact, drinking in universities/colleges tends to be ritualistic. Wolburg (2001) highlights four characteristics of a ritual that are observed in the process of alcohol intake. These characteristics and their manifestations are the ritual artifacts – alcohol is the ritual artifact; a script that outlines the rules and procedures – there are rules which govern the acquisition and intake of alcohol; performance of the ritual – students order and drink; and finally, an audience – in the intake of alcohol, the audience is the peers and bartenders. This analysis highlights the ritualistic nature of binge drinking.
Binge drinking among college students is further catalyzed by the intensity of the same among adults. In a US study on binge drinking amongst college students Nelson et al., (2005) indicates that in states with the highest quartile of adult binge drinking, the rate of the same practice amongst college students stood at 52.7%. Conversely, in those states with the lowest quartile of adult engagement, the rate of binge drinking among college students was 36.1%. A further finding of the research was that there was a direct correlation between state laws on alcohol consumption and the intensity of intake. Those states with stricter laws had lower rates of alcohol consumption in comparison to those whose laws were more lenient. The laws regarding alcohol intake in the UK are rather lenient since individuals are legally allowed to consume alcohol from eighteen years of age (Gov.UK, 2016). Furthermore, the law also allows individuals of 16-17 years to serve alcohol or partake in its consumption (albeit there is a qualification to this allowance). Nonetheless, the general effect is that individuals become exposed to the practice of alcohol consumption in its conventional sense at a young age.
Risk Groups That Are More Susceptible to Binge Drinking
Certain indicators and factors expose an individual to higher probabilities of engaging in alcohol consumption, including age and gender. Younger college students are more likely to drink a lot (Atwood, 2012). Men are more generally expected to engage in alcohol intake and in fact, alcohol intake is associated with masculinity. The reason for this is that masculinity is often associated with those activities that involve risk-taking and those that place the body’s well-being at risk. Within an alcoholism context, men engage in binge drinking with an aim of demonstrating stamina, self-control, non-conformity, and willingness to take risks (Peralta, Steele, Nofziger, & Rickles, 2010). Nonetheless, recent research highlights an increase in the cases of women engaging in binge drinking, with the gap between male and female indulgence slowly being bridged (Keyes, Grant, & Hasin, 2008). Nonetheless, there are still a larger number of men who initiate alcohol and substance use earlier than their female counterparts. Gender contribution to binge drinking operates through a mechanism of gender ideologies rather than physical sex differences (Peralta, Steele, Nofziger, & Rickles, 2010). Boys and girls are brought up differently right from when they are born. The differences in upbringing and values that each is taught to hold on to are what leads to the disparity in drinking habits. Different patterns of social interactions lead to differences in virtues and beliefs and ultimately, to differences in behavioral patterns.
Effects of Binge Drinking
Academic performance needs a clear mind and the right mood status. Binge drinking having an effect on body functionality can lead to poor concentration to academic tests and activities. Binge drinking students report poor performance on academic tests and activities. Most students that report binge drinking have reported poor examinations. Reports suggest that drinking more than 0.2 g% BrAC can affect the next-day performance on random tests. It also affects the neurocognitive patterns in the brain and the mood state of an individual (Howland, et al., 2010).
Heavy drinking results to widespread health impairments in the cognitive abilities. It deteriorates the decision-making skills, impulse control and also impairs motor skills such as hand-eye coordination and body balance. These impairments often result into accidents and various harms to the body of the binge drinker. To add on, binge drinking students tend to experience hangovers and blackouts as compared to other students (White & Hingson, 2014). Due to cognitive impairments, decision-making procedures are poor. Reports suggest that many binge drinkers engage in unplanned and unprotected sex more often than the normal drinkers (Townshend, et al., 2014, p. 1145)
Binge drinking can also lead to legal impairments and family break-ups. Excessive consumption of alcohol lessens individual’s inhibitions causing one to behave in a way that is not considered sober. The incidents that one can deal with naturally when sober can get out of hand when one has taken excessive alcohol leading to the hands of the police. Reports suggest that alcohol-related problems include sexual assaults, damage of property, offensive behavior and, hindering police, resisting arrest and drinking while driving. Being with a crime in the UK is the start of ‘problems’. One will spend time in jail, serve the community, no employment from industries or loss of current employment. Legal problems can also result in friction between family members and relationship break-ups.
Binge drinking in the UK among the
college students Is at a raising issue in the field of health and social structure.
The practice is common with the college students. The effects of binge drinking
are alarming, and the students, especially at the college level should be aware
of these adverse consequences that they are going to face shortly. Even though
they are vulnerable to drinking, alcohol consumption is a dangerous and the
scariest of all disease an individual can face, Liver Cirrhosis. Binge drinking,
indeed a health issue and policies should be formulated to tackle the behavior
in the college students in the UK.
List of References
Atwood, E., 2012. Don’t Blame it on the Alcohol:
A literature review on college binge drinking predictors. [Online]
Available at: http://www.acui.org/publications/bulletin/article.aspx?issue=36080&id=18044
[Accessed 22 October 2012].
Gov.UK, 2016. Alcohol and young people. [Online]
Available at: https://www.gov.uk/alcohol-young-people-law
Howland, J. et al., 2010. The effects of binge drinking on college students’ next‐day academic test‐taking performance and mood state.. Addiction, 105(4), pp. 655-665.
ICAP, n.d. “Binge” Drinking. [Online]
Available at: http://www.icap.org/policytools/icapbluebook/bluebookmodules/6bingedrinking/tabid/167/default.aspx
[Accessed 23 October 2012].
Keyes, K. M., Grant, B. F. & Hasin, D. S., 2008. Evidence for a closing gender gap in alcohol use, abuse, and dependence in the United States population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, pp. 21-29.
Nelson, T. F., Naimi, T. S., Brewer, R. D., & Welscher, H. (2005). The State Sets the Rate: The Relationship Among State-Specific College Binge Drinking, State Binge Drinking Rates, and Selected State Alcohol Control Policies. American Journal of Public Health, 441-446.
Peralta, R. L., Steele, J. L., Nofziger, S. & Rickles, M., 2010. The Impact of Gender on Binge Drinking Behavior Among U.S. College Students Attending a Midwestern University: An Analysis of Two Gender Measures. Feminist Criminology, pp. 355-379.
Townshend, J. et al., 2014. Binge Drinking, Reflection Impulsivity, and Unplanned Sexual Behavior: Impaired Decision‐Making in Young Social Drinkers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38(4), pp. 1143-1150.
White, A. & Hingson, R., 2014. The Burden of Alcohol Use: Excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among college students. Alcohol research: current reviews, 35(2), pp. 200-202.
Wolburg, j. M. (2001). The “risky business” of binge drinking among college students: Using risk models for PSAs and anti-drinking campaigns. Journal of Advertising, 23-39.