Discussion Board Topics: The topics selected is cell death
1. Describe a time when you experienced cellular injury. Perhaps you had a cut or a broken bone. Describe the type of injury, the signs and symptoms you experienced, and explain what was going on to produce those signs and symptoms.
2. Choose one type of tissue injury – mechanical, chemical, hypoxic, infectious, or immunological/inflammatory. What happens when the cells become traumatized? How does that lead to further injury? What does the body do to contain the injury?
3. Describe the process of cell death. What is happening in the cell that tips it from being injured to dying? After the cell dies, what happens to it?
4. How do autoimmune diseases develop? Do you know of anyone with an autoimmune disease? If so, can you describe what you know of their disease progression and its treatment? Be sure that you related this information to what you have learned in class.
Response to Cell Death
The Process of Cell Death
3. Cell death can either be programmed or as a result of the non-physiological and degenerative action of the enzymes occurring in the cell after injury or infection. The programmed cell death is an intracellular program occurring either as apoptosis or autophagy (Cho, Park, Shin, & Chan, 2010). The exposure of cells to severe stress and damaging agents, intrinsic abnormalities, and the inability of the cells to adapt causes cell injury. The injurious stimuli affect numerous metabolic pathways and the cellular organelles which eventually causes death. The removal of the damaging agent in the early stages or during mild forms of the injury may reverse the morphologic and functional ability of the cell thus preventing nuclear dissolution or severe membrane damage. Continuing damage, however, causes death. The damage causes enzyme leakage out of lysosomes, which enter the cytoplasm and digest the cell. Additionally, cellular cells leaking from the damaged plasma membrane elicit a host reaction. The cell digestion and protein denaturation cause cell death. Upon necrosis, cytosolic constituents spilling into the extracellular space through the damaged plasma membrane trigger an inflammatory response (Proskuryakov, Gabai, & Konoplyannikov, 2003). The response activates the resident phagocytes that attracts leucocytes into the necrosis zone and catalyzes and amplifies pathological processes under pathophysiological conditions (Cheema, Herbst, McKenzie, & Aiken, 2015). The necrotic tissue can be removed through debridement. In
case, the steam was a damaging agent that caused a continued degenerative
action of the enzymes leading to the failure of the cells to perform essential functions.
There was a need to cool and protect the burn by covering it with sterile clean
cloth or a non-adhesive bandage following which you should have taken pain
relievers. However, considering the immense pain hours after the burn, there
was a need to seek professional help. Following the extent of the injury, the debridement
of the necrotic tissue was important to prevent amplified pathological processes
that could have affected other healthy parts of the fingers.
Cheema, N., Herbst, A., McKenzie, D., & Aiken, J. M. (2015). Apoptosis and necrosis mediate skeletal muscle fiber loss in age-induced mitochondrial enzymatic abnormalities. Aging Cell, 14 (6), 1085-1093. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365892
Cho, Y., Park, S., Shin, H., & Chan, F. (2010). Physiological consequences of programmed necrosis, an alternative form of cell demise. Molecules & Cells, 29 (4), 327-332. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10059-010-0066-3
Proskuryakov, S. Y., Gabai, V. L., & Konoplyannikov, A. G. (2003). Necrosis is an active and controlled form of programmed cell death. Biochemistry 67 (4), 387-408. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11996653