Descriptive Study Evaluations
In an essay of 1,250-1,500-words, evaluate three empirical, descriptive research studies on the same topic used for Weeks 2 and 4 in this course. Evaluate the three new articles based upon the eight steps in chapter 8 of the text.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is/is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Descriptive Study Evaluations
The pre-service teacher education program’s main objective is to prepare graduate teachers so that they can become top of the game teachers who are equipped with various practices that will meet the increasing demand associated with this profession. Over the past few years, there has been a lot of focus towards developing a strategy that will ensure qualified teachers have received increased attention in education. There has been more interest in using modern teaching practices that enhance intellectual reasoning and problem solving as well as foster student connectedness (Harland, 2001). Recent research proves that teachers take value-based formal approach to make a positive difference in a student’s learning. Evidence-based educational policies have transformed to a global phenomenon. It has been noted that this evidence-based education has been integrated with professional wisdom, and the best case example provided empirical evidence in decision making and how to deliver the instructions. This ensures that the most appropriate practices require teachers to make sure that instructional strategies and courses are implemented in their classrooms and have been scientifically tested through experiments to determine their effectiveness. The practicing teachers and the general public included make some assumptions that the educators are conversant with the evidence based education. However, this assumption is not always the case. The main objective of this is to determine how pre-service teachers gets access to findings from research, the kind of findings that they include in their practice, identification of the purposes of its’ utilization, identification of various factors that influence the utilization of research and to ensure that the findings of this study are accessible. Action research has been done in promoting pre-service teacher efficacy, facilitating teaching and enabling effective learning process. Development of self-efficacy theories noted that experience or what is commonly referred to as performance accomplishments is a very critical factor in the establishing of self-efficacy.
There are mainly four sources of these efficacy expectations; performance fulfillment, gained experience, verbal persuasion and psychological states. Performance fulfillment is mostly based on the individual mastery experiences. Strong efficacy expectation is based on repeated success or achievements. However, few failures do not heavily affect efficacy. Failures can serve as self-motivation alongside exposure to tackle more complex problems. Gained experience is when a teacher gets to observe what other teachers practice to become successful than them in their ability to tackle things. Research has it that seeing others perform activities without adverse consequences can inspire the person to believe that they too can do it. This helps to improve their efforts. Verbal persuasion is the inevitable attempt by teachers to influence the behavior of others. This is a very common concept that most of us fall victims of. It is widely and commonly used. While giving information of what to expect in the near future, emotions of fear can be deterred. As more inexperienced teachers enter the workforce, the verbal persuasion leads teachers to believe that they can effectively cope with what had troubled the past. Physiological states pertain to how we judge our own self-efficacy during very different situations that raise our stress or anxiety levels. Arousing emotions can also affect self-efficacy.
Studies have recently been conducted looking at the use of empirical research by some teachers. Around five hundred teachers in the United States expressed opinions in support of the use of research, reporting that on average; they had to consult research teams once every year. Another study discovered that 65% to 90% of the teachers reported research use was very low and sometimes never. This unfolding did not go in accordance with the goals of the United States department of Education’s Strategic Plan of 2002-2007. To make more emphasis on this, the Institute of Education Science (IES) in 2002 through the U.S Department of Education established What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as a resource for informed education in decision-making (Harland, 2001). To reach its’ objective, WWC developed studies that provided credible and reliable evidence of how effective a given practice, program or policy can draft summary information on the WWC website. Currently, there are over 800 publications available and more than 10000 reviewed studies on their online searchable database. The WWC aims at informing educators as they strive to work towards improving the quality of education for students. However, teacher’s knowledge in the use of this resource has been very disappointing (Harland, 2001). The question raised is how to increase pre-service teachers’ efficacy in the use of research methods and evidence based education. Research has it that a well versed teacher is better equipped to ensure that the students are learning. Enormous pressures that face today’s teachers must be addressed in the landscape of teacher preparation. In the United States, for instance, teachers are scrutinized for addressing the changing needs of students who are both diverse and have respect to their socio-economic status (Schleicher, 2012). As higher learning institutions become more accountable to their goals, the performance of teacher graduates will be an accountability test. It will be interesting to note that all teacher preparation programs will ensure that the pre-service teachers have the necessary strategies for making sure that their classroom management and instructions reflect the excellent practices. Therefore, their information literature can be accessed, analyzed and implemented considering the evidence-based practices (Harland, 2001).
However, the report on the use of research is not surprising since it is known that teachers are not given time or funds, thus it isn’t prioritized in the teacher preparation for the core course or curriculum content. In efforts to determine why teachers were not using empirical study research, a study was conducted in which it was found out that an association of experts did not support research and individual qualities of self-efficacy (Schleicher, 2012). In order to engage in this research, a pre-service teacher needs to be exposed to and have the opportunity to practice skills for inquiry. The inquiry-based learning is important to students as they get to learn through direct involvement in research (Harland, 2001). Understanding and getting involved in these research methods can motivate them to evaluate their individual research, assist other faculties with their research or even collaborate with other teachers to conduct some action research on a certain problem from the field.
certain approaches to policies that value different teacher traits on research
evidence is very promising. In evaluating the range of potentially effective
policies, an understanding of how a teacher’s attributes affect the performance
across these different teaching areas is important (Harland, 2001). The highlights of a recent study on the empirical
evidence outlined some aspects such as teacher experience. Studies recently
have shown that experience in teaching has a positive effect; and to be more
precise, the learning by example. Teacher preparation programs and the prestige
of the higher learning institution that a teacher attended had a positive
effect on the student’s achievement especially at the high school level (Schleicher, 2012). This may be partially due to
the cognitive ability of the teacher. Research shows that the teachers with
more advanced degrees had a higher positive impact on the achievement of high
school mathematics and science subjects. The research demonstrated a high
positive effect of certified teachers on high school mathematics students especially
when the teacher’s certification is in mathematics (Harland, 2001). Teacher coursework in both the subject area
covered and the pedagogy greatly contributes to positive education outcomes. Teachers’
own test scores assess the literacy levels and abilities of teachers and is
associated with even higher levels of student performance. In conclusion,
education policy makers and administrators become well served by recognizing
the complexity of the issue and then adopting multiple measures.
Harland, T. (2001). Pre-service teacher education for university lecturers: The academic apprentice. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 27(3), 269-276.
Schleicher, A. (2012). Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf