Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Instructions: Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Review this week’s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 45 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in the Learning Resources.
Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments.
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes is a disease that is characterized by the inability of the body to produce insulin, or to use the produced insulin properly. The insulin hormone controls blood sugar levels (Peterson & Arcangelo, 2013). This chronic condition results in an increase in the blood glucose levels that have the ability of damaging blood vessels, organs, and nerves. Insulin is required by the body in order to utilize insulin as a source of energy. There are three major types of diabetes including type 1 diabetes that is also referred to as juvenile diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes (Peterson & Arcangelo, 2013). Each of these forms of diabetes has different approaches through which it is treated or managed. This paper is going to review the differences between the three types of diabetes and the drug therapy employed in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes and Drug Treatment
As earlier mentioned, there are three types of diabetes. To start with, type 1, also referred to as juvenile, diabetes takes place in cases where there is a mistaken attack of the beta cells within the pancreas by the immune system, killing them and hence making it difficult for insulin to be produced by the pancreas (American Diabetes Association, 2014). This leads to a buildup of glucose in the blood as opposed to being metabolized for energy. This type of diabetes mainly takes place during adolescence or childhood, with a few cases taking place in adulthood. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes takes place in the cases where the body is unable to effectively utilize the produced insulin or fails to produce enough insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2014). This also leads to an increase in the glucose levels in the blood as sugar is not utilized for energy. Most of the persons having diabetes suffer from this type of diabetes, which mainly occurs among adults, with a few cases involving children. Another form of diabetes is gestational diabetes, which is temporary and occurs among pregnant mothers. This type of diabetes exposes the pregnant women and their unborn children to a heightened risk of developing the other types of diabetes (Bánhidy, Ács’, Puhó, & Czeizel, 2010).
There are various types of treatment for type 2 diabetes with metformin being a first-line treatment in drug therapy. Glucophage is a type of metformin drug that controls hyperglycemia in type two diabetes. The drug is in form of 500 mg and 850 mg tablets and is administered orally (Ali, 2015). The 500 mg tablet should be given three to four times per day, while the 850 mg tablet should be given two to three times per day. It is important for the maximal dose not to surpass 2.55 g within a single day. Glucophage, which is also referred to as metformin hydrochloride, ought to be taken with food to reduce the occurrence of gastric intolerance in the form of vomiting and nausea, among other cases. This drug is only applicable in type two diabetes cases that are stable, responsive, non-ketosis prone, and mild that cannot be effectively managed through dietary alterations, insulin therapy, or weight reduction and exercise (Ali, 2015). Some of the contraindications of the medication include individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is unstable, those with chronic or acute acidosis, those with lactic acidosis, and those who have renal dysfunction or consume excess alcohol. The absorption of the drug is slow and may take more than six hours.
Type 2 diabetes presents patients with various complications, some of which are short-term while others are long term. One of the short term complications is hypoglycemia, where there is an excessive reduction in the blood glucose levels as a result of low dietary intake of energy foods, intensive exercise, or excessive production of insulin (Peterson & Arcangelo, 2013). In addition, one may experience high blood sugar as a result of low production of insulin, or reduced sensitivity of the body tissues to insulin. Gastrointestinal reactions, including abdominal bloating, nausea, flatulence, and vomiting, are also common among diabetic patients on drug therapy (Peterson & Arcangelo, 2013). On the other hand, kidney failure is one of the long-term conditions that may result from diabetes, especially among patients using metformin drug therapy as this drug is released through urine. Accumulation of the drug in the kidneys leads to malfunction and failure (Ali, 2015). On the other hand, high blood sugar destroys blood vessels, which could ultimately lead to long-term conditions such as damaged eyesight, high blood pressure, heart attack, damaged liver, and stroke, among other conditions (Peterson & Arcangelo, 2013).
It is clear that diabetes is an important condition
that requires proper collaboration between the patient and the clinicians in
order to effectively uphold clinical and self-care. Type two diabetes is highly
common and has increased complications, some of which are brought about by the
long-term use of diabetes medications. For instance, metformin causes both
short-term effects such as gastrointestinal reactions and long-term effects
such as kidney failure. Hence, it is important for health care professionals to
engage their patients in understanding the side-effects of drug therapy and to
promote other diabetes management approaches such as dietary considerations and
exercise, which holistically promote diabetes management.
Ali, M. (2015). A new approach in Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment: Evaluation of the beneficial effect of L-cystein in the treatment of type 2 diabetesmellitus. Hamburg: Anchor Academic Publishing.
American Diabetes Association. (2014). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 37(1), S81-S90.
Bánhidy, F., Ács’, N., Puhó, E. H., & Czeizel, A. E. (2010). Congenital abnormalities in the offspring of pregnant women with type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus: A population-based case-control study. Congenital Anomalies, 50(2), 115–121.
Peterson, A. M., & Arcangelo, V. P. (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach. Ambler, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.