Dispositional, Biological, and Evolutionary Theory Newspaper Article Essay
Dispositional, Biological, and Evolutionary Theory Newspaper Article
Write a 1,000- to 1,250-word informational article for a newspaper in which you do the following:
Describe the differences between dispositional and evolutionary or biological personality theories.
Discuss the strengths and limitations of dispositional and evolutionary or biological personality theories as they apply to behavior.
Discuss the Big Five personality test and how it is used to study personality.
Include a minimum of two to three sources.
Dispositional, Biological, and Evolutionary Theory Newspaper Article
Various theories could be used to elaborate and explain more about personality. Dispositional theories, for example, show the relationship between attributes and the personality (Buss, 2013). Factor and tract are some of the popular dispositional theories. This paper is going to look at the differences between dispositional and evolutionary personality theories, the strengths and limitations of the two as well as the Big Five personality test and how it applies to the study of personality.
It is one of the approaches that is used to classify psychological characteristics. The five-factor trait theory by McCrae and Costa gives a better example of these classifications. The model presents five major factors and each with high as well as low scoring levels. The Psychology of the Individual, according to Alfred Adler, is the second dispositional personality theory. It is believed that every individual is best at determining the behaviors that they should engage in including their needs and desires. These traits are known as dispositions. Commonly, according to dispositional theorists, dispositions help to develop the personality of the individual. Features like culture are shared by a wide group of people and are common, but an appropriate disposition is unique for each. The psychology of this theory looks at the unconscious behaviors. Social behavior is viewed by the behavior and choices that the individual makes.
They are also referred to as biological principles, and they are meant to help us understand how genes and personality traits are interconnected (Buss, 2013). Evolutionary theories also assist in explaining the approach that connects changes in genetics with the external environment. The arguments used in this division assist in studying the distinct personality of an individual in comparison to the generalized outlook that is referenced to in the dispositional theories. New studies and research have led to new information. Evolutionary psychologists imply that the genetic structure, which evolves over time, is the building block of the primary personality structure. According to dispositional psychologists, however, traits are considered to be a consistent structure on which personality is based. This theory goes further to question who we are as a people and why differences and similarities exist among us.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Evolutionary theories and dispositional theories have their share of strengths and weaknesses. Dispositional theories are viewed as ones that cannot be tested using a hypothesis. They are mostly based on speculation instead of a well-researched scientific investigation. According to Allport’s Psychology of the Individual theory, various assumptions were used although some individuals, like the ones who are considered to be unhealthy, could not be covered. The bulk of dispositional theories consists of primary research, yet they are not verifiable. Gordon Allport acknowledged the existence of the unconscious but did not elaborate on how it affects and influences individual behaviors in the human. According to Allport, he only creates a starting point for which there can be a deeper research on personality (Buss, 2013). Strong psychological theories have a higher empirical evidence rating as well as good studies, but dispositional theories are based upon a philosophical approach, which impedes empirical testing. It has led to this theory being viewed as parsimonious or as one that fails to utilize all resources.
Evolutionary theories of personality combine the use of psychology with biological factors so as to help explain differences in individuals that are not directly connected to environmental changes. There are weaknesses displayed by the physical application of the theory, which is seen as being internally inconsistent (Buss, 2013). An example is how it guides parents towards raising children based on the skills and education learned at home. In these theories, there are limitations towards the type of testing that may be used to explain behavior and personality. Certain parts of the personality are covered while other are left out showing that the research is divided into various areas where some are not included under the theory.
Big Five Personality Test
Initially, there were thousands of personality traits, and this number was considered too lengthy until Paul Costa developed the five-factor model. We could gain more understanding and clarification of the personality by looking at the five-factor trait theory by McCrae and Costa (Larsen & Buss, 2008). The big five personality attributes have enabled people to have a procreative benefit. The personality traits known as the big five are the most recognized and utilized personality models in theoretical psychology. Factor analysis is a key method used by this model to gauge the response of someone’s personality. The big five factors consist of agreeableness vs. antagonism, extraversion vs. introversion, conscientiousness vs. un-directedness, openness to experience vs. not open to experience and neuroticism vs. emotional stability (Larsen & Buss, 2008). A cautious individual is conscientious, a person who is eager to please may be considered agreeable while a negative and pessimistic person is said to elicit neuroticism.
These five traits help the individual to respond in a reliable way to a similar situation since they react to the same position over time. Behaving ineptly, in a single case does not necessarily signify inconsistency. Each of the five factors has low and high scores that could be used for assessment. If someone was talkative and active, extroversion could have a high score while low scores will consider introverts who are quiet, resigned and some may say unfeeling. If we were examining openness, the high scores would include certain criteria like originality, creativity and curiosity whereas conventional, uncreative and conservative would be considered as the low scores. Various experiences may lead to psychological changes over time, and hence individuals may require identifications to treatments when identifying the dozens of the five factors. This model provides us with insight into the personality spectrum which enables us to understand the person, and the choices they make, in a better manner. Whenever the big five personality test occurs, there are a series of questions that will relate to a particular factor among the five. The questions help to gauge where an individual stand on the scale, low or high, factors such as creativity or happiness. A psychologist can easily user these issues to determine how the person perceives these things from their view.
study of evolutionary and dispositional theories provides us with several
insights into the personality of an individual and how it is determined (Larsen
& Buss, 2008). Ranges of scores are used during the assessment, but
observation can also be used where possible. We can see how behaviors undergo
change the world, and generations, move forward. If we understand these
theories, we can figure out why people behave the way they do.
Buss, D. (2013). Feminist Evolutionary Psychology: Some reflections. Journal Of Social, Evolutionary, And Cultural Psychology, 7(4), 295-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0099192
Larsen, R. & Buss, D. (2008). Personality psychology (1st ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.