As a nurse at Memorial Hospital, a large city hospital, you provide care to diverse patients. As you work the nursing units at the hospital, you engage with the electronic health records of hundreds of patients each day as a way of accessing, recording, and developing guidelines for safe and quality patient care. Today, you have accessed the patient portal to help you develop and design educational materials for your patient. As you review the pertinent information in the patient portal, you begin considering how you will communicate these educational materials to your patient. After gathering your thoughts and obtaining the necessary history and medical needs of your patient, you are ready to create and deliver this educational plan to your patient.
Click each of the items below for more information on this Assessment.
Part 1: Educational Plan
Design and create an educational plan (brochure or pamphlet) that addresses the following for your selected patient:
Include relevant health information necessary to educate your patient on their healthcare needs.
- Describe and define the health diagnoses, treatments, and at least one medication listed in the patient portal.
- Explain relevant statistics and individual health vital signs related to the patient’s medical history.
- Recommend additional reputable sources of support for patients with similar health needs/diagnoses.
- Consider the context of your individual patient, and be sure to include any recommendations on how to access sources of support based on racial/ethnic background or culture, socioeconomic status, educational background, health literacy, and linguistic proficiency.
- Adhere to health literacy guidelines for your individual patient.
- Address each of the six areas from the “Checklist for Easy-to-Understand Print Materials.”
- Make your educational plan visually appealing and relevant to your individual patient.
- Support the development of your educational plan by consulting and referencing 3 to 5 reputable sources.
- Ensure that your educational plan is 1 to 2 pages in length; include a separate page for you reference list.
Part 1: Educational Plan
Describe and define the health diagnoses, treatments, and at least one medication listed in the patient portal.
ANS: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the body’s inability to utilize glucose, which is the primary source of energy for the cells, effectively. The levels of glucose in the blood are regulated by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. The treatment of diabetes mellitus typically involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medication, and in some cases, surgical therapy. One of the most widely used medications for diabetes mellitus is Metformin. Metformin, marketed under various trade names such as Glucophage, is the initial choice of medication for type 2 diabetes, particularly in individuals who are overweight.
Explain relevant statistics and individual health vital signs related to the patient’s medical history.
According to statistics, the prevalence of diabetes in the United States is significant, with an estimated 34.2 million people or 10.5% of the population affected by the condition. Out of this number, 26.8 million people, or 10.2% of the population, have been diagnosed with diabetes, while approximately 7.3 million people are believed to have undiagnosed diabetes. Diabetes affects individuals from all social, economic, and ethnic backgrounds. It should be noted that no data regarding patient health or vital signs were provided in this context.
Recommend additional reputable sources of support for patients with similar health needs/diagnoses.
ANS: In addition to the medical treatment that individuals with diabetes mellitus receive from hospitals, they also require various forms of support to manage their condition effectively. This includes psychological support provided by psychologists, physical support from physical therapists to aid in weight loss and exercise, nutritional support from nutritionists and dietitians, and financial and emotional support from social workers. These forms of support are essential in helping patients with diabetes mellitus to manage their condition and improve their overall well-being.
Consider the context of your individual patient, and be sure to include any recommendations on how to access sources of support based on racial/ethnic background or culture, socioeconomic status, educational background, health literacy, and linguistic proficiency.
ANS: To ensure that patients have access to the various forms of support mentioned, nurses must possess cultural competence and be aware of the diverse needs of patients. They must be able to overcome communication and language barriers by understanding and acknowledging the unique values, beliefs, and worldviews of different cultural groups. One effective way to do this is by speaking the patient’s language or utilizing a translator for patients with limited English proficiency. Additionally, visual aids such as pictures, gestures, or written summaries can improve communication and reduce language barriers. Furthermore, nurses should actively engage in cross-cultural interactions with patients, recognizing that each patient is an individual with unique beliefs, values, and needs. By doing so, nurses can build effective relationships with patients and provide better care.
Make your educational plan visually appealing and relevant to your individual patient. Support the development of your educational plan by consulting and referencing 3 to 5 reputable sources.
ANS: Below is an example outline of an Education Plan for patients with Diabetes Mellitus.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the body’s inability to properly utilize the food consumed for energy. The majority of food consumed is converted into glucose, or sugar, which the body uses as energy. The pancreas, a gland located near the stomach, produces a hormone called insulin which helps glucose enter the body’s cells. These cells then use glucose as energy. In individuals with diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or is unable to utilize the insulin it produces, leading to high blood sugar levels.
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin and typically develops before the age of 30. Type 2 diabetes, which is more common, is characterized by the body’s inability to utilize insulin effectively, and often develops in adults over the age of 40. The exact cause of diabetes is not known, but genetic factors may increase the likelihood of developing the disease.
How will I know if I have diabetes? (Powers, 2016)
To diagnose diabetes, your healthcare provider will look for certain symptoms commonly associated with the disease, known as the “diabetes alert.” These symptoms include frequent urination, excessive thirst or hunger, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, weakness and fatigue. Additionally, they may order one or more diagnostic tests, such as:
- Urinalysis: This test checks for sugar in the urine.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: This test measures the sugar level in the blood after an individual has fasted for at least 8 hours.
- Random (nonfasting) plasma glucose test: This test also measures the sugar level in the blood, but no fasting is required before the test.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: This test involves fasting for at least 8 hours, then drinking a sugary beverage to measure the sugar level in the blood.
How will my diabetes be treated?
Diet and lifestyle changes can help keep your blood sugar at a normal level and prevent other problems, such as blindness and kidney damage. Your healthcare provider may also prescribe medicine. Some people with type 2 diabetes need to inject insulin if these changes don’t control their blood sugar level (Fan, 2016).
Your healthcare provider may tell you to check your blood sugar level at home using a blood sugar meter. He’ll tell you when and how often to check and what your level should be. Keep a daily record of your levels. If they’re too high or too low, let your healthcare provider know.
What are the possible complications? (Norris, 2002)
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can occur in people taking medications for diabetes. Severe hypoglycemia can be dangerous because you may pass out. Signs to watch out for are feeling dizzy, nervous, weak, and shaky. You may also sweat, feel sleepy, confused, or hungry, or have trouble speaking. If your blood sugar level is 70 mg/dL or lower, eating or drinking any of these foods can help:
* one-half cup (4 ounces) of any fruit juice
* one-half cup (4 ounces) of a regular (not diet) soft drink
* one cup (8 ounces) of milk
* one or two crackers
* five or six pieces of hard candy
* one or two teaspoons of sugar or honey.
You can check your blood sugar level again after about 15 minutes, and if it’s still too low, have another serving. You should always carry one of these foods with you.
Another possible complication of diabetes is hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar. It can cause poor vision, slow-healing cuts and sores, vaginal and skin infections, and nerve damage. Early signs include increased thirst, headaches, trouble concentrating, blurred vision, frequent urination, weight loss, and feeling weak and tired (Chrvala, 2016).
To keep your diabetes under control (Duncan, 2009):
* Change your diet. Your healthcare provider and a nutritionist can help you plan meals that are low in fat, salt, sugar, and cholesterol. Cut calories if you’re overweight. Limit your alcohol intake.
* Stop smoking. Besides raising your blood sugar level, smoking also damages your heart and kidneys.
* Exercise regularly. A balanced program of exercise and rest can help keep your blood sugar level stable. Check your blood sugar level before and after exercise. Always carry a carbohydrate snack (like crackers) to eat if you feel weak.
How can I prevent health problems?
Untreated or poorly controlled diabetes can damage your eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart, and cause erectile dysfunction in men (Brunisholz 2014). To avoid these complications:
* Take your medicine as prescribed. If you have unpleasant side effects, contact your healthcare provider.
* Have a complete eye exam once a year. Controlling your blood sugar level can prevent damage to your eyes.
* Take care of your teeth. People with diabetes have a higher risk of cavities and gum disease. Have regular checkups, brush after every meal, and floss daily.
* Protect your skin. Inspect your skin daily for dryness, cuts, redness, or any changes. Drink plenty of water (unless your healthcare provider wants you to limit fluids).
* Check your feet. Because diabetes may damage nerves in your feet, you may not feel small cuts and bruises. Check your feet every day for sores. If you feel any numbness, tingling, or burning in your feet, contact your healthcare provider immediately. Wear comfortable shoes that fit properly and never go barefoot.
* Keep an eye on your blood pressure and weight. Your healthcare provider will check your blood pressure at each visit; 130/80 or less is best.
* Watch your blood cholesterol level. Have it checked once a year. Your total cholesterol should be below 200 mg/dL.
* Find support. Your healthcare provider can tell you about diabetes support groups in your area so you can get tips for living with diabetes.
Detail how you would communicate this educational plan to your patient.
ANS: I would communicate this to my patient in a manner where we both go through each instruction in the plan. By discussing the importance of each, I can ascertain that this educational plan will be more effective.
Describe how you might use telehealth or other healthcare technologies to communicate the educational plan to your selected patient.
ANS: Telehealth can surely be used for these patients. Making use of telemedicine services is very easy. Traditionally, the service uses an online account or a toll-free phone number. Patients request a visit, submitting basic information on their condition, and then the physician either accepts or declines the visit, or schedules it for the future.
Include a plan for care coordination. Explain your plan for care coordination based on the educational plan you developed. Incorporate patient-centered care strategies in the design and delivery of your educational plan.
ANS: Care coordination involves deliberately organizing patient care activities and sharing information among all of the participants concerned with a patient’s care to achieve safer and more effective care. This means that the patient’s needs and preferences are known ahead of time and communicated at the right time to the right people, and that this information is used to provide safe, appropriate, and effective care to the patient.
The plan of care coordination for this specific patient is a crucial step in making sure that the educational plan sustains its purpose. The plan of care coordination for this specific case should be made between the discharging physician and nurse, the receiving nurse at the local community, and any significant other or guardian the patient has who is concerned for is or her healthcare. There must be a coordinated communication among these three points of care.
Based on the educational plan provided, the following strategies can be used to improve the patient’s plan of care coordination:
* Establishing accountability and agreeing on responsibility.
* Communicating/sharing knowledge.
* Helping with transitions of care.
* Assessing patient needs and goals.
* Creating a proactive care plan.
* Monitoring and followup, including responding to changes in patients’ needs.
* Supporting patients’ self-management goals.
* Linking to community resources.
* Working to align resources with patient and population needs.
Fan, M. H., Huang, B. T., Tang, Y. C., Han, X. H., Dong, W. W., & Wang, L. X. (2016). Effect of individualized diabetes education for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a single-center randomized clinical trial. African health sciences, 16(4), 1157-1162. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i4.3
Powers MA, Bardsley J, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: A joint position statement of the American diabetes association, the American association of diabetes educators, and the academy of nutrition and dietetics. Clin Diabetes. 2016;34(2):70-80. https://doi.org/10.2337/diaclin.34.2.70
Brunisholz KD, Briot P, Hamilton S, et al. Diabetes self-management education improves quality of care and clinical outcomes determined by a diabetes bundle measure. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2014;7:533-542. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S69000
Duncan I, Birkmeyer C, Coughlin S, et al. Assessing the value of diabetes education. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35(5):752-760. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721709343609
Norris SL, Lau J, Smith SJ, Schmid CH, Engelgau MM. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(7):1159-1171. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.7.1159
Chrvala CA, Sherr D, Lipman RD. Diabetes self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the effect on glycemic control. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99(6):926-943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.11.003