Esophageal Cancer Research Paper
1) Describe pt. history and symptom
2) Describe patient\’s population affected , frequency
3) Advantage and disadvantage over other modalities
4) Describe of modality used including view , positioning , techniques.
5) Review of image findings( can include other supporting test such as lab, etc
6) Diagnosis and discussion of pathology
7) Treatment option
9) Reference( using APA format
Esophageal Cancer Research Paper
Overview and Prevalence
According to Saba and El-Rayes (2015), esophageal is described as “cancer of the esophagus” where malignant growth or tumor are present in the tube that links the pharynx and the stomach, conventionally known as gullet. Research suggest that esophageal cancer is a rare illness and it is less common in Western Europe and North America as compared to its increased prevalence in Asia and some parts of Africa(Zhang, 2013). In the United States of America, 16, 640 individuals were diagnosed with esophageal cancer in by the end of 2010. This illness is associated with individuals of age 55 years.
History, Types, Signs, and Symptoms
There are two types of esophageal cancer namely; squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Up until the 1970s, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type of esophageal cancer in the US. The primary symptoms characterized by this illness is dysphagia. Other symptoms associated with esophageal cancer include regurgitating- vomiting due to food coming back up, weight loss, pain in the throat, excessive coughing, voice alterations, acid reflux linked with chest pains. Esophageal cancer is triggered by large consumption of alcohol, achalasia –“esophageal motility disorder”, celiac disease, Human Papillomavirus, obesity, genes smoking, and radiotherapy (Saba & El-Rayes, 2015).
Modalities and Diagnosis
The most common modality used in performing diagnostic tests for esophageal cancer is endoscopy or gastroscopy where a long and thin instrument, called endoscope is inserted through the mouth into the gullet and towards the stomach (Zhang, 2013). The endoscope has both a camera and light at the end of its tip enabling the doctor to determine images of inside the esophagus and determine the presence of cancerous cells. This method is effective as the physician observes the entire esophagus. Also, a biopsy can be used where a sample of the tissue is taken during the endoscopic test to observe abnormalities. This method is costly and as well as ineffective as it covers only a part of the esophagus. Furthermore, a patient can undergo endoscopic ultrasound test, barium swallow test, and CT scan in cases where cancer has spread throughout the body.
Image of Endoscopy Test for an anonymous patient
Review of Images and Findings
Fig 1: Shows an endoscopic view of intraluminal esophageal cancer
Fig 2: CT- Scan of esophagus showing an inverted image of a throat infested with esophageal cancer.
Fig 3: Shows circumferential view of esophageal cancer in its salient stages of development.
According to Ingelfinger, Rustgi, and El-Serag (2014), the development of esophageal cancer from Barret metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is related to changes in the gene structure, expression as well as the protein structure. The potential makers of this illness related to oncosuppressor gene TP53 and erb-b2. Furthermore, the variations of cell cycle abnormalities and p16 genes seem to be the essential characteristics that depict esophageal cancer (Das et al., 2015).
Treatment and Prognosis
Esophageal cancer has no cure, but early screening can decrease its severity and improve the quality of life in patients. Notably, treatment options depend on the cancer cellular type, cancer stage, overall health and patient’s age. Since the patient cannot swallow effectively, a nasogastric tube is inserted through the nose for feeding as the cancerous parts are treated through surgery. Surgery entails;
- Esophagectomy – removal of a cancerous part of the esophagus.
- Esophagogastrostomy – removal of the part in the esophagus where there is a tumor, and other parts affected such as stomach and parts that are near the lymph nodes.
- Photodynamic Therapy- Injection of a special substance into the esophagus that makes the cancerous cells subtle to light.
Other therapies include chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In regard to prognosis, a patient will survive
the illness depending on its stage of development.
Das, M., Saikia, B. J., Sharma, S. K., Sekhon, G. S., Mahanta, J., & Phukan, R. K. (2015). p16 hypermethylation: A biomarker for increased esophageal cancer susceptibility in high incidence region of North East India. Tumor Biology, 36(3), 1627–1642. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2762-7
Ingelfinger, J. R., Rustgi, A. K., & El-Serag, H. B. (2014). Esophageal Carcinoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(26), 2499–2509. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1314530
Saba, N. F., & El-Rayes, B. F. (2015). Esophageal cancer: Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy. New York: Springer Publishers. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=DBFcCgAAQBAJ&dq=esophageal+cancer&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Zhang, Y. (2013). Epidemiology of esophageal cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v19.i34.5598