Geopolitics and globalization SEC/451
Geopolitics and globalization Essay
Choose one state and one non-state actor and explain how each impacts geopolitics and globalization.
Research at least five peer-reviewed articles from academic journals, government sources, or research institutions (e.g. Rand) to form your findings.
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper to include the following:Identify the global challenges related to geopolitical influence
Compare similarities and differences of the influences based on your research
Determine the unique security considerations influencing globalization
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines
Geopolitics and globalization SEC/451
Geopolitics and globalization Essay
Globalization can be described as the act of international integration through exchanging products, ideas, world views and other cultural aspects. This exchange increases interdependence and enhances economic ties. Telecommunications infrastructure and transportation machinery form the major aspects of globalization. Globalization is dramatically changing the world by affecting the social, political, cultural and economic aspects of life. Geopolitics, on the other hand, refers to the study of foreign policy in order to understand, predict and explain international political behavior using geographical variables (Eric, 2010). It can also be used to describe fight for supremacy, whereby a country or state competes for supremacy in an international community.
Geopolitics and globalization is either positively or negatively affected by various actors. Actors are simply entities or people that play vital roles in international relations. The two main types of Actors are state actors and non-state actors. State actors are people or entities that act or work on behalf of the government. They include state-government, local government authorities, government officials and any other government employee that is under law enforcement. Non-state actors are entities that have sufficient power to influence international relations but are not under any government institution. They include sub-state actors, Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs), Transnational Actors, Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) among others (Ataman, 2003). This article will discuss the impact of NGOs and state-government on globalization and geopolitics. NGOs are chosen to represent non-state actors while state-government is chosen to represent state actors.
Currently, joining an NGO is believed to enhance the chances of having a global say especially in international relations. NGOs can be described as private international actors that are steered by volunteers from several states. They are never steered by the state but influence policies created by state governments and IGOs. NGOs are set to tackle various state and global problems such as human rights, environmental protection and disarmament among others. Though NGOs are supposed to be politically independent, they can be influenced by organizations such as government, powerful individuals and private institutions. This is because they depend on them for funding. However, NGOs have a greater influence on political and neoliberal economic agenda. Neoliberalism, is an ideology that is led by the United Nations and other nations. One of its main aims is to reduce the state’s role in education and health sector. Most of the state and international funds are channeled to NGOs rather than the state. This factor reduces the government’s power thus giving NGOs the power to have direct influence on international and global relations. Secondly, NGOs work at a global level by improving the standards of people living in less fortunate nations. The aids used in this activity are received from various states. This also give NGOs an upper hand in directly influencing global decisions.
Though NGOs work closely with sovereign states as law policy makers, International Nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) foresee international laws and agreements. For instance, in the treaty aimed at banning land mines, NGOs are seen acting in isolation without the states consent. The outcome was a treaty that affects both international law and local policies. This shows that NGOs independently influence state and international policy making. INGOs are also seen engaging in campaigns aimed at regulating commercial activities of international organizations such as Nestle. The effect of NGOs on globalization and geopolitics is seen in the position that NGOs hold in United Nations (UN). Currently, NGOs have been given a chance to attend UN official meetings (Christensen, 2006). Scholars in the field of international relations now term NGOs as non-state actors that have a great impact on international policy. They have successfully participated in creating policies to improve international relations and reduce tension due to geopolitics. Though there impact may be small, they have several accomplishments on international decision making. They have strengthened women rights, successfully signed environmental agreements, and successful carried out disarmament.
Just as NGOs, the state-government as a state actor also has influence on globalization and geopolitics. There are global policy makers that enforce international laws but do not determine laws of sovereign states or seek to monopolize states. In fact, states remain the main law makers and enforcement agencies. States are very important in the development of transnational and global regulatory rules. For instance, the US court has become a global governor by solving thousands of transnational crimes every year. This shows that a state’s government influences global policy making that promotes globalization and reduces geopolitical tension. On the contrary, a state’s government can prevent globalization (Tehrain, 2006). For instance, in case of geopolitical battles that are perpetrated through cyber, some states may choose to protect themselves by preventing flow and exchange of goods with states regarded as potential threats. This state action in turn negatively affects globalization.
From the above discussion, state actors and non-state actors have a role in the development of international politics. INGOs are known to be peace makers in case of geopolitical tension or wars. This is done through participating in creation of policies that promote global and international peace. Similarly, state government participates in creation of policies that promote international or global peace (Norris, 2014). However, the policies created may also increase geopolitical tension thus preventing globalization. Unlike state government that may prevent globalization due to geopolitical tension, NGOs only promote globalization.
Geopolitical influence can have detrimental challenges both to the economy and local politics of a state. Geopolitical influence can lead to economic sanctions. For instance, the revenge activities engaged in by the west and Russia clearly show that some nations are willing to sustain economic hardships just to attain their political goals. If this move is practiced by many nations, then there is a risk of most of the involved countries protecting their supply chains and national producers. This will in turn prevent globalization. Secondly, geopolitical influence may lead to political instability, resource scarcity and change in global power from USA to East.
globalization is an aspect that is advocated for by many nations due to its
great benefits, there are security features that influence it. One of this
features is terrorism. Terrorist groups can be termed as both non-state actors
and security considerations in globalization. Globalization has become a ground
for terrorists to carry out their activities. Due to this, countries are forced
to enforce internal security. Increased internal security enforcement can lead
to increased fight for power. It can also destroy international relations thus
affecting globalization. Secondly, balancing between globalization and national
security is difficult (Eric, 2010).
To a country, national security of it citizens is paramount. For instance, in
developing countries reducing carbon emission is necessary to ensure
environmental security. However, developed countries do not find it an issue. In fact, reduction in carbon emission is a
threat to their economy. The environmental degradation resulting from
environmental pollution may end up affecting developing countries alone. Water
security is also another issue that affects undeveloped or developing
countries. If developed countries share rivers with developing ones, then the developing
countries are bound to lack water. This is because during reservation of water
to ensure water security, developed countries are normally more advantaged.
This violets the liberal philosophy of globalization.
Tehrain, M. (2006). Global Communication and International Relations: Changing Paradigms and Policies. The International Journal of Peace Studies, 8(1), 1-8.
Christensen, R., K. (2006). International Nongovernmental Organizations: Globalization, Policy Learning, and the Nation-State. Intl Journal of Public Administration, 29, 281-303
Norris, K., J. (2014). The Effects of American Involvement in Northern Uganda’s Conflict with the Lord’s Resistance Army. Celebration, 58, 20-28.
Ataman, M. (2003).The Impact of Non-State Actors on World Politics: A Challenge to Nation- States. Turkish Journal of International Relations, 2(1), 42-66.
Eric, C., L. (2010). Globalization and the future of the law of the sovereign state.International Journal of Constitutional Law, 8 (3): 636-655.