Introduction to Psychology Assignment 04
For Part A of this assignment, you will apply the principles of operant conditioning to modify an existing behavior. Target a behavior to be modified, either an undesirable behavior that you would like to eliminate or a desirable behavior that you would like to strengthen.
- Generate a plausible explanation for why the problem exists.
- Describe one (1) reason why you want to change the behavior and one (1) benefit the change will bring.
- Carefully design a program for modifying the behavior, making sure to include all relevant conditioning principles incorporated within your plan (which might include the use of positive and negative reinforcers, punishment, shaping, schedules of reinforcement, modeling, extinction, stimulus discrimination or generalization, primary and secondary reinforcers, and so on.) Your plan should include three (3) steps.
Design a series of test items that would indicate the different intelligences according to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Provide one (1) original example of how you would test each of the eight (8) different intelligences.
Introduction to Psychology Assignment 04
Bullying has been on the rise across the US society. As a negative behavior, bullying has led to diverse repercussions such as suicides among the victims. Therefore, the implementation of comprehensive tactics towards changing the behavior should rely on diverse theoretical approaches towards successful outcomes. Therefore, this paper will examine bullying as a societal vice as per the case questions.
Why the Problem Exists
Each day, in reference to Sekol & Farrington, (2016) a child becomes a victim of bullying. The act of aggression and violence has become an issue of concern keeping many children away from schools. The majority of the times, the children are either physically threatened or emotionally degraded. Gaining awareness about bullying behavior is important to develop prevention and intervention programs towards promoting pro-social behavior. Therefore among the two main reasons as to why the problem of bullying exists include:
Social issues: in the society, the notion of recognizing bad behavior and condoning it has become a facilitating aspect towards the prevalence of bullying. Garandeau, et al., (2016) emphasizes that in both the work and school situations, bullies are seen as strong, dominative whereas those being bullied are seen as weak or emotionally feeble. Condoning any form of bullying is an aspect of concern that is further heightening the bullying problem.
Family issues: the family background in reference to Sekol & Farrington, (2016) is the most evident setting that has led to the increase in bullying. Studies undertaken by Sekol & Farrington, (2016) reveal that a child living in an abusive or violent family setting is prone to bullying tendencies. As such, in a family setting in which violence is condoned, and the parents do not take responsibility for mitigating bad behavior among their children is bound to heighten the bullying behavior.
One reason for the change of the behavior and benefit the change will being
Changing the bullying behavior is an important due to the negative effects that the act has on both individuals and the perpetrator. From the analysis of Garandeau, et al., (2016) changing the bullying behavior will lead to the reduction in teenage youths in jails and rehabilitation centers. In the contemporary society, bullying has led to negative or criminal behavior which has led to the bullying perpetrators to be jailed or held up in the juvenile rehabilitation centers that dissuade or impact on their educational life. Thus, the focus on changing the bullying behavior should generate an environment in which there is the reduction in juveniles in jails and the detention or rehabilitation centers.
Hence changing the behavior will have beneficial to the society and mostly the families whose children are bullied. The increasing rate of teenage suicide, depression cases and mass shooting in schools as a result of bullying is an issue of concern. With an increase in suicide rates by more than 10% as per last year as a result of bullying, it has become imperative to reducing the worrying rates. From the analysis of Sekol & Farrington, (2016) the focus on changing bullying should be beneficial towards the reduction of loss of innocent life. Lives of innocent adults and children have been lost through both direct and indirect outcomes of bullying. Sekol & Farrington, (2016) further emphasizes that another beneficial outcome of changing bullying is the reduction of mental health cases. Victims of bullying exude low self-esteem, depression, an introverted behavior coupled with being withdrawn from the society. The evident emotional effects contribute to the mental health of the individuals who have to seek counseling and anti-depression drugs. Children in their early teens have had to take anti-depressant drugs which are impactful on their mental health. Hence, changing the bullying behavior can tremendously improve the mental health of the victims.
Program for modifying the behavior using relevant conditioning principles
Conditioning principles are based on two approaches: classic and behavioral conditioning. Classic conditioning denotes the use of both positive and negative reinforcement through the use of rewards, punishment or conditioned stimulus. On the other hand, behavioral therapy is focused on human behavior. Admittedly, the approach denotes a focus towards eradication of unwanted behavior. In a typical manner, behavioral conditioning is utilized in the mitigation of behavioral and mental problems that comprise of the unwanted behavior. Bullying as a behavior that requires modification can be tackled through both positive and negative reinforcement (Garandeau, et al., 2016). As the first approach, the use of positive reinforcement is advisable in the reduction of the behavior. As such, the truant and perpetrators of bullying should b rewarded in the instance that they exude change in their behavior. Through counseling and monitoring the progress of their behavioral modification, rewards such as prizes, recommendation for early release in rehabilitation centers and involvement in the classroom setting can boost their morale towards changing their behavior.
On the other hand, the use of negative reinforcement is viewed as something unpleasant. As such, the use of negative reinforcement is towards exuding a feeling of regret among the perpetrators of bullying. From the analysis of Sekol & Farrington, (2016), punishment can denote expulsion from schools, suspension and sentencing individuals to the juvenile detention centers. The implementation of negative reinforcement in reference to Sekol & Farrington, (2016) should be viewed as the most extreme approach towards modification or changing the behavior. Pundits such as Sekol & Farrington, (2016) assert that the use of negative reinforcement in most instances can lead to further increase the incidences of bullying. Therefore, the implementation of a dualistic approach that entails a combination of positive and negative reinforcement can lead to effective outcomes in changing bullying.
Gardner’s theory in analysis of the multiple intelligences and how to test each of the eight different intelligences
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is incorporated in the education sector towards the determination of the most effective way to assess and determine the learning or behavioral modification process of the students. Thus, from the analysis of bullying, the eight multiple intelligences that can be used to change bullying:
logical: denotes the use of numbers in an effective manner to determine approaches to using as a result of statistical findings
- Visual or spatial approach: dependant on the use of artistic or spatial perspective
- Bodily or kinesthetic: excellent in the tasks that involve physical movement
- Musical: incorporation of musical or expressions to change behavior
- Linguistics: incorporation of words in an effective manner
- Interpersonal: use of social relationships towards tackling of a given behavior such as bullying
- Intrapersonal: reflective approach that is inner-directed towards management and changing a behavior
- Naturalist: use of real world approaches towards handling bullying
Therefore, from the analysis of the multiple intelligences, it is fundamental to implement an effective test approach towards tackling bullying. Development of an effective testing strategy should assist in the internalization of methods towards changing bullying. The implementation of traditional tests such as multiple choices and questionnaires should develop an effective approach towards understanding individualistic portfolio and how to tackle bullying in a personal manner (Garandeau, et al., 2016).
Bullying is a societal menace that has negative repercussions on both the victims and perpetrators. Focusing on positive reinforcement approaches such as counseling and rewards for good behavior are viable initiatives towards modification of the behavior. As such, focusing on positive reinforcement should reduce the increasing cases of suicide, depression, and truancy among individuals in the learning institutions.
Garandeau, C. F., Vartio, A., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2016). School Bullies’ Intention to Change Behavior Following Teacher Interventions: Effects of Empathy Arousal, Condemning of Bullying, and Blaming of the Perpetrator. Prevention Science, 17(8), 1034-1043.
Sekol, I., & Farrington, D. P. (2016). Psychological and background correlates of bullying in adolescent residential care. Journal of Social Work, 16(4), 429-452.