ISSA Fitness Training – Case Study
Instructions: Client Profile: Steve Rogers
Age Gender Resting Heart Rate Height Weight Body Fat Percentage
27 Male 60 bpm 6′ 178 pounds 11%
Steve is an avid runner and has been quite slim his whole life. He runs moderate- to long-distances 3 or 4 days per week. Running is his only physical activity. Steve has never been interested in resistance training because it is not his strong suit. Steve recently decided that he is tired of being skinny. He would like to put on some size and muscle before he travels back to his hometown for a good friend’s wedding in 12 weeks.
Using the information above, calculate the client’s BMR and DCR
Calculate the client’s Target Heart Rate using the Karvonen formula (you will determine the appropriate target heart rate for this client given the information gathered in the initial assessment and evaluation)
Include the following in your case study submission:
A description of your professional responsibilities as discussed in the stages of the drawing-in process (Unit 12)
Discussion of any fitness tests, methods of evaluation, and data collection used to assess and evaluate the client’s needs.
Explanation for your recommendations and any specific conditions presented by your client that are found in the evaluation. (Be sure to reference course concepts when discussing rationale for your recommendations.)
A detailed 12-week comprehensive and periodized training program including specific exercises, sets, repetitions, suggested rest times, etc. Use an integrated approach in your program recommendations.
Specific and detailed nutritional strategies with explanation as to how they will assist the client in meeting energy needs throughout the training program and achieving intended goal(s).
Keep in mind that a client should be able to take your program and put it into practice without having to contact you to clarify what you intended by your recommendations, or to explain parts of your program.
Include an explanation for WHY you listed and recommended what you did. Reference the concepts and theories covered in the course. Be sure to address why the program and exercises recommended are appropriate for the specific client given client history, current abilities, and intended goal(s). For example: if you are developing a program for a beginner client without any resistance training experience, explain how your program addresses the lack of experience, initial need for foundational development, process by which you would safely progress the client, etc. Tying your program to course concepts is a critical component of your case study.
Fitness Training Program.
The client’s Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and DCR
To calculate Steve Roger’s BMR, Metric BMR formula shall be taken into consideration. Using the male’s formula:
BMR = 66 + (13.7 x weight in kilos) + (5 x height in cm) – (6.8 x age in years)
BMR = 66 + (13.7 × 80.74 Kgs) + (12.7 × 6 inch) – (6.8 × 27 yrs.)
BMR = 66 + 1106.138 + 76.2 – 183.6
BMR = 1064.7 Cal/day
Being an avid runner who runs for 3 to 4 days every week, Steve’s activity level could be ranked as average. As such:
DCR = BMR x 1.55 (activity level)
DCR = 1064.7 Cal/day x 1.55
DCR = 1650.3 calories per day
Steve’s Target Heart Beat using Karvonen formula
Target heart rate =
Steve’s maximum heart rate = 220 – 27(Age) = 193
Target Heart Rate = ((Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate) x training %) + Resting heart rate
Target heart rate = ((193-60) x 11%) + 60
Target Hear Rate = (133 x 0.11) + 60
Target heart rate = 74.63 bpm
Accordion to Karvonen formula, Steve’s target heart rate during work out is at 74.63 bpm.
As a professional fitness trainer, having a good education background on the human anatomy, the concepts of functional exercise, basic nutrition and exercise science is at the top of the list. I will also be responsible for designing Steve’s exercise program tailored to the needs and attainable goals of Steve Rogers (McDonald & Hodgdon, 2012). As a professional fitness trainer, I will also conduct screening and client assessment during the initial stage and as Steve Rogers progress his training program. As part of my responsibility, I will ensure that the design of the fitness program is safe and effective in every way according to Steve’s expectation. I will also help Steve Rogers reach his health and fitness goals through the performance of the appropriate cardiovascular, flexibility and resistance exercises. My primary focus is to ensure that Steve is properly motivated to improve his fitness and health objective in a short period as possible (McDonald & Hodgdon, 2012).
Fitness tests and the method of evaluation
Steve will undertake various fitness test that will focus on muscular strength, endurance, cardio-respiratory endurance, speed, agility, and flexibility. Before embarking on this fitness test, Steve must be healthy enough to engage in such exercises. This means that Steve’s medical record will have to be reviewed to identify any medical, orthopedic or other sensitive health issues that might have been left out. Steve will be taught the correct techniques to apply, these extends to pacing and running styles to (McDonald & Hodgdon, 2012).
The first fitness test is the curl-ups, which will focus on improving the abdominal strength and endurance. In this fitness test, Steve will have to lie down with his knee flexed and feet 12 inches from the bottom (Jensen, Suadicani, Hein, & Gyntelberg, 2012). The arms are to be crossed placed on opposite shoulders and elbows held close to the chest. In this case, Steve will be raising the trunk, curling up to touch the thighs with his elbows and then lowers back repeatedly. The second fitness test is shuttle run, which measures Steve’s speed and agility. Here, two parallel lines will be created thirty feet apart and two pieces of wood blocks placed behind every line (Jensen, Suadicani, Hein, & Gyntelberg, 2012). Steve will start behind a different line with the other participants and stay ready for a signal to start. Once Steve and other members are given a go ahead, they will have to run to the blocks, pick one and run back to the starting line to place the block. This fitness test will repeatedly be done until all blocks are selected.
The third fitness test is the endurance run or walks exercise which focuses on measuring the heart and lung endurance (Jensen, Suadicani, Hein, & Gyntelberg, 2012). In this test, Steve will have to walk or run at a safe distance with other participants in a short period. The fourth fitness test is the pull-ups, which focuses on improving the upper body strength and endurance. However, in this test, Steve will perform the right angle push-ups and flexed-arm hang. Here, Steve will hang from a horizontal bar at a considerable height with arms fully extended and feet free from the floor. In this case, Steve will be raising his body until chin clears the bar and lowers body to a full-hang starting point. To complete the test, Steve will have to complete as many correct pull-ups as possible (Jensen, Suadicani, Hein, & Gyntelberg, 2012).
Data collection used
For this study, the type of data used is influenced by data collection strategy, the kind of variable, the accuracy required and the collection point. This means the data collected based on Steve’s health status, ample instructions given on how to pace himself. Also, Steve was to practice running and another exercise against time. Also, enough time was provided for warming up and cooling down before and after the test (Artero, a-Romero, ero, & Ortega, 2011).
12-week training program
|Three times per day
|10 mins per set
|Improves abdominal strength and endurance
|Four times a day( Twice in the morning and Twice evening hours)
|5 min per set
|Improves speed and agility
|Twice a day(Morning and evening)
|Improves heart and lung endurance
|Four times (twice in the morning and Twice in the evening)
|10 mins per set
|Increases upper body strength and endurance
The 12-week training program recommended above is suitable for Steve decision to build his body muscles. The training program focuses on building the muscles which help in strengthening the ability of the body to endure resistance. The recommended training program is also suitable for Steve since he was more of a runner rather than a body builder. The training program recommended above is for beginners as Steve whose primary focus previous was on running rather than bodybuilding. The program focuses more on resistance training experience to concentrate more on building muscles through endurance and body strengthening (Artero, a-Romero, ero, & Ortega, 2011). Resistance exercises such as curl-ups, shuttle run, and pull-ups are more time demanding which is essential for beginners such as Steve Rogers. When using the training program, more energy is focused on these resistance exercises, which will help in improving the body structure and build the body muscles. This is consistent with Steve Roger’s goal of focusing on resistance exercise throughout the 12-week training program.
The curl-ups exercise is essential for initial foundational development, which focuses on building muscles around the abdomen. Steve will be able to build the stomach muscles necessary for exhaling and inhaling while performing other exercises. Curls up are important for beginners who lack the training experience in resistance exercises (Artero, a-Romero, ero, & Ortega, 2011). The shuttle run will help Steve in fast movement of body muscles, which is important before engaging in pull-ups. The shuttle-run focuses more on speed and agility, which is essential for a stronger muscle foundation. The training program also concentrates on the safety of how Steve will have to take every exercise. The number of sets acts as guides on how many times each exercise is to be engaged. This is to avoid any muscle pulls that is caused by excessive physical activity. Since Steve is a beginner is resistance training, resting time is allocated per every set, which helps avoid health complications because of excessive exercise (Artero, a-Romero, ero, & Ortega, 2011).
Proteins form the most important macronutrients when it comes to the composition of the body (Antonio, Peacock, Ellerbroek, Fromhoff, & Silver, 2014). For Steve to effectively gain lean muscle, it is important for him to consume high amounts of proteins and carbohydrates, which are the dense sources of calories. Engagement in endurance exercises would mean an increase in the need for energy by the body, which is to be supplied by the high calorie intake in the diet. On the other hand, the body needs proteins through the diet to build up the muscles. This section makes various recommendation that will assist Steve to achieve a high protein high calorie diet.
To start with, it is important for Steve to consume a balanced diet that includes foods from the various food groups. Steve should consume small but frequent meals to facilitate an increase in his protein and calorie intake. It may be a challenge for the patient to monitor the kind of foods that they consume throughout the day and thus the extent to which they have met their nutritional needs (Antonio, Peacock, Ellerbroek, Fromhoff, & Silver, 2014). Nevertheless, by making minor adjustments in the diet and introducing new foods that may positively alter the nutrient intake. Case in point, to increase the protein intake, Steve may drink a minimum of two glasses of milk on a daily basis if such milk is tolerated by the patient. For patients with lactose intolerance, lactose free milk may be consumed. Other milk products including cheese, pudding, cream or yoghurt could also be consumed by the patient. Steve should consume both animal and plant proteins. Nevertheless, animal proteins should be consumed more due to their bioavailability, which means they are absorbed more easily (Antonio, Peacock, Ellerbroek, Fromhoff, & Silver, 2014). It is also important for the patient to ensure that they consume enough fruits and vegetables as they will offer him different types of micronutrients that are important for various functions in the body, including hastening metabolism and facilitating muscle anabolism.
Steve should also consume calorie dense foods to reduce the volume of food consumed in a day. The liberal use of fats will increase the amount of calories in Steve’s diet. In addition, Steve should add other additives such as margarines or butter into other foods such as pastas, eggs, vegetables, and breads to increase the calorie content in the diet. Steve should also ensure that he feeds his meals in time and that he includes snacks in between meals to increase the quantity of proteins and calories consumed throughout the day (Antonio, Peacock, Ellerbroek, Fromhoff, & Silver, 2014).
Antonio, J., Peacock, C. A., Ellerbroek, A., Fromhoff, B., & Silver, T. (2014). The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. Journal of International Social Sports and Nutrition, 11(19), 1-6.
Artero, E. G., a-Romero, V. E., ero, J. C.-P., & Ortega, F. B. (2011). Reliability of Field-Based Fitness Tests in Youth. Spor t s Med Journal, 159 – 169.
Jensen, M. T., Suadicani, P., Hein, H. O., & Gyntelberg, F. (2012). Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study. Journal ofEpidemiology and community Health, 882-887.
McDonald, D. G., & Hodgdon, J. A. (2012). The Psychological Effects of Aerobic Fitness Training: Research and Theory. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.