Learning Personality Theories and Dispositional Personality Theories
Select two of the following theoretical approaches: psychodynamic, humanistic and existential, dispositional, or learning.
Obtain faculty approval of your selection.
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you compare the theories selected. Address the following:
Describe the role of personality in affecting situational behavior.
Examine the personality characteristics attributed to each theory in your approach.
Explain the interpersonal relational aspects associated with the theories selected.
Include a reference page with a minimum of three to five peer-reviewed sources.
Format your paper according to APA guidelines
Learning Personality Theories and Dispositional Personality Theories
The two psychological personality theories have a number of similarities and differences. As such, this essay transcends a discussion of a comparison between dispositional and learning personality theories. Also, the paper will address the differences between the two personality theories regarding personality, interpersonal relationships, characteristics as well as behaviour. Conventionally, it is evident that individual personality will directly affect the behaviour of one. As such each theory of personality entails characteristics ascribed to it.
Role of Personality in Affecting Situational Behaviour
First, dispositional personality theory suggests that individuals possess a set of dispositions/temperaments that build up the character of an individual that consequently affects behaviour. Cherry (2013) stipulates that a trait is defined as a relative characteristic which is stable that can initiate people to behave in a particular way.
Dispositional theories encompass Allport’s theories of individual psychology, and the Trait and Factor Theories by Eysenck, McCrae, and Costa (Feist & Feist, 2009)In his article, Feist suggests that “traits are manifested in a person’s behaviour, consequently, defining them by their traits and characteristics. About the theory stipulated by McCrae and Costa, behaviour is a predictable element when there is sufficient understanding of the three core components; self-concept, central tendencies and trait adaptations, and three secondary ones. The underlying tendencies include that the raw components that affect personality. These basic tendencies of an individual are biological, environmental and are affected by the psychological interventions. As such, the situational behaviour of an individual is consequential of the primary indispensable tendencies of an individual. The basic tendencies encompass three personality traits namely cognitive abilities, language acquisition, and sexual orientation. Arguably, Feist and Feist (2009) suggests that the basic tendencies are present due to their biological considerations and their permanence over time as well as situation.
Additionally, characteristic adaptations which are modified by the environment, makes behaviour to depend on the environmental factors from situation to situation. Feist and Feist (2009) outlines that characteristic adaptations can be affected by the external influences of the environment in which individual interact. As such these influences are in the form of acquired habits, relationships and attitudes. Also, self-concept affects situational behaviour in that a person views his or herself in one situation as different from the other situation. One situation can make an individual fearful in regards to self-concept, other situations make individual more joyful. Also, in her article, Feist suggest that the peripheral components of the 5-factor personality theory will influence situational behaviour through the interaction of the external influences, adaptations of a particular character and the third peripheral component (Feist & Feist, 2009).
In comparison to dispositional theories, which are focussed on the individual traits, learning personality theories focus on the observable behaviour of individuals. In this case, the observable behaviour is not only the actions that individual performs and viewed by others, but also it entails feelings and thoughts that other people are observing them. Learning theories include B.F Skinner behaviourist theory, Cognitive Social Learning Theory by Mischel and Rotter, Albert Bandura’s socio-cognitive theory, and psychology of personal constructs. B.F Skinner suggests that psychology must define behaviour as a basis of the environmental stimuli (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015).Additionally, Skinner suggests that the genetic make-up of an individual have less influence on the behaviour since these factors are present when an individual is born and they cannot be changed. As such, B.F Skinner is a sole believer in the analogy which indicates that the past experiences that individual faces have a greater impact on the behaviour of an individual. Therefore, according to B.F Skinner, and individual behaviour changes on a situation are dependent on individuals past histories. Alternatively, Bandura suggests that individuals tend to control their behaviours through both the external and internal factors (Mischel, 2013).This analogy depicts that these external and internal factors tend to influence the behavioural patterns of individuals in a specific situation depending on a number of factors.
Personality Characteristics Attributed to Dispositional and Learning Personality Theories
According to Feist and Feist (2009), personality theories constitute two forms, those who view personality as a dynamic entity cultivated by drives, needs, perceptual urges, objectives, and expectations, and those who view personality as a component of relatively stable personal dispositions or traits. Both theories have personality traits attributed to them. In dispositional theories of personality, Allport suggests that mature people are psychologically characterised by pro-active behaviour, in that they have the ability to act on the environment in innovative ways as well as making the environment react to their actions. On the other hand, the Eysenck theory and five-factor theory share the same idea that psychometric makeup of an individual cannot measure the ultimate structure of human personality and that factor analytic methods are worthless when they are not interconnected with the biological existence (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015).
Second, learning theories of personality indicate that individual behaviours are shaped by different ways of learning a construct. Arguably, B.F Skinner argues that some personality traits are passed through from one generation to another. Reminiscent of B.F Skinner views, Albert Bandura believed that people learn through personal experiences, although, he propagates that they do so in vicarious learning. Furthermore, other learning and dispositional theories suggest that people have little control to their situations which depict a pattern of behaviours. As such, Richel refutes that individuals have the core or central traits, but he relates that people can change and form personality traits through learning. Cognitive-Affective Theory suggests that behaviour originates from the cognitive-affective processes and the personal dispositional traits which interact with a specific situation. Alternatively, Kelly suggests that the personality of an individual is moulded by the personal interpretations and meaning of a particular situation.
Interpersonal Relational Aspects of the Two Theories
Dispositional personality theories dole out individuals to various classifications, contingent upon the individual’s personality qualities. Interpersonal relations are impacted by an individual’s feelings and sentiments (Pincus & Ansell, 2013). Everybody has distinctive emotions and perspectives of their general environment and different societies. Interpersonal relations are affected by the aura of a person. For instance, a man who has a manner to be quiet and loose will probably have interpersonal associations with people of a similar air. Interpersonal connections are additionally impacted by past encounters. Individuals are probably going to maintain a strategic distance from circumstances that present similar characteristics of negative past encounters. Significance, past encounters can impede interpersonal relations, contingent upon the attitude of the other individual, or the circumstance going with the other individual. Learning personality theory recommends that personality is impacted by moulding and vicarious learning. Regardless of how individuals have gained the practices he or she has intellectual, interpersonal relations will be impacted. For example, a man could be flatmates with a dear companion and watch his companion be affronted and undermined by his better half; the man may have a specific elucidation of male-female connections. It could be years subsequent to the fact when this man gets into his very own relationship, however vicariously learned identity attributes would stay with him, and impact his interpersonal connections. Undoubtedly, he would have a twist toward being untrusting or the requirement for predominance. Rotter built up a test known as interpersonal trust scale so as to test the general anticipation of trust inside a person (Pincus & Ansell, 2013).
this paper argues out that dispositional and learning personality theories have
entailed different perceptions of individual personality. Dispositional
personality theories stipulate that people have defined characteristics at
birth and are transformed or moulded through learning, As such, interpersonal
relationships are significantly affected by both theories. Alternatively,
learning theories of personality suggest that people mould their personality
through vicarious learning or conditioned situations. Arguably, it is evident
the environment will affect the behaviour of an individual. Learning theories
of personality approve that both positive and negative behaviour will initiate
influence the interpersonal relationship.
Cherry, K. (2013). Trait theory of personality. Retrieved December 28, 2016, from Psychology Today: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2009). Theories of personality. New york: McGraw Hill.
Fleeson, W., & Jayawickreme, E. (2015). Whole trait theory. Journal of Research in Personality, 56, 82-92.
Mischel, W. (2013). Personality and assessment. Psychology Press.
Pincus, A. L., & Ansell, E. B. (2013). Interpersonal theory of personality. Handbook of psychology, 5, 141-159.