Description of Assessment Task (mapped to ACs)
For this assignment you will undertake a project about Ebola, Malaria or Zika virus. You can present the assignment in any chosen format e.g. report, scrapbook etc. You may wish to use newspaper articles, pictures, journal articles, charts/graphs, internet sources and books for your research. The project needs to have a logical, fluent structure, with headings and subheadings. Word count 2000 words. The assignment is divided into three tasks: Task one: Fill in the planning sheet detailing how you plan to meet every assessment criteria. Research and plan where you are going to find sources from. You can continue to complete this as your assignment progresses detailing the sources you have used, e.g. book titles, websites, newspapers, journals. You will also need to include a plan of how the project will be structured. Task two (700 words): for this task you need to explain what is meant by public health and epidemiology. You need to explore how they are related, giving an example of one life style and one biological based disease (criteria 2.1 and 2.2). You will also need to write a brief history of epidemiology, e.g. John Snow to present day. Examine what scientific and technical advances have aided epidemiology and how these changes have impacted on patterns of health. The great stink of London video clip and the history of epidemiology pdf on Moodle would be useful resources for this (criteria 1.1). Task three (1300 words): for this task you need to research one disease. You do not need to include a lot of detail explaining the signs and symptoms of the disease, but you will need to explain how it is transmitted. You will need to analyse the role of the World Health Organisation in relation to your chosen disease, e.g. technical support, monitoring (criteria 3.1). Analyse the factors that have affected the spread of the disease. To do this you will need to think about environmental geography, e.g. deforestation, urbanisation (criteria 1.2), cultural, and social factors, e.g. gender equality, rituals, religion (criteria 1.3). You will also need to evaluate the impact globalisation has had on the spread of the disease, e.g. migration, transport links (criteria 3.2).
|Demonstrate an understanding of how changing patterns of health influence health care.
|1.1 Analyse historical influences on changing patterns of health including science and technology. 1.2 Evaluate the impact environmental Geography has on patterns of health. 1.3 Analyse how changing patterns of health and health care needs are influenced by society’s needs and expectations.
|Demonstrate an understanding of the role of epidemiology and the links with Public Health.
|2.1 Explore the concept of public health and analyse its relationship with epidemiology. 2.2 Analyse life style verses biological based disease and disorders relate to epidemiological studies.
|Demonstrate an understanding of the major goal of preventative medicine.
|3.1 Analyse the role of the World Health Organisation in preventative medical services. 3.2 Evaluate the extent to which these services impact on globalisation.
|If you have achieved all Level 3 criteria you will receive a grade (Pass, Merit or Distinction) against the following Grade Descriptors. The GDs must be taken from the pre-established components within the QAA Grading Scheme Handbook Section B (There are no descriptors for Pass; learners achieve a Pass by meeting all ACs for the unit at Level 3.) Please add / delete boxes as necessary…
|Grade Descriptor (Insert more rows as necessary)
|To achieve a Merit : The learner has
|To achieve a Distinction : The learner has
|GD1: a & b Understanding of the Subject
|Demonstrates a very good grasp of the relevant knowledge base and is generally informed by the major conventions and practices of the area of study.
|Demonstrates an excellent grasp of the relevant knowledge base and is consistently informed by the major conventions and practices of the area of study.
|GD2: a & c Application of Knowledge
|Made use of relevant ideas, facts and concepts with either breadth or depth that goes beyond the minimum required to pass, along with very good levels of synthesis, insight and analysis that goes beyond the minimum required to pass.
|Made use of relevant ideas, facts concepts and theories with both breadth and depth that goes beyond the minimum required to pass, along with excellent levels of synthesis, insight and analysis that goes beyond the minimum required to pass.
|GD3: a, b & c Application of Skills
|Generally selects appropriate planning skills with very good levels of accuracy.
|Consistently selects appropriate planning skills with excellent levels of accuracy.
|GD5: Communication and Presentation
|Shows very good command of structure, use of images, language (including technical or specialist language), spelling, punctuation and referencing
|Shows excellent command of structure, use of images, language (including technical or specialist language), spelling, punctuation and referencing
|GD7: a, b & c Quality
|Produced an assignment which is structured in a way that is generally logical and fluent and puts forward arguments or ideas which are generally unambiguous but which are in a minor way limited or incomplete. The assignment when taken as a whole, demonstrates a very good response to the demands of the brief/assignment
|Written an assignment which is structured in a way that is consistently logical and fluent and puts forward arguments or ideas which are consistently unambiguous and cogent. The assignment when taken as a whole, demonstrates an excellent response to the demands of the brief/assignment
|What this means for this assignment (Please give guidance to the student to explain what the grade descriptor components mean within the context of the task in order that s/he may be able to achieve Merits or a Distinctions) GD1: For this descriptor you need to demonstrate your understanding of the technical and scientific developments that have impacted on epidemiology and health. You will need to explain the difference between life style and biological based disease and demonstrate that you know how epidemiology relates to these. You will also need to demonstrate your understanding of the role of the World Health Organisation in relation to the monitoring of a given disease and the support the organisation offers. The key to the higher grades in this assignment is how well you are able to bring together your knowledge of epidemiology and relate it to disease, public health and the World Health Organisation. GD2: For this descriptor you need to apply your knowledge by analysing how globalisation, geographical, cultural and social factors have an impact on the spread of a given disease e.g. how have changes in the environment, cultural rituals or gender inequalities affected the prevalence or spread of a disease either worldwide or in a specific geographical location. Higher grades here are dependent upon your ability to not only explain what factors affect the spread of a disease, but analyse how they have an impact and how the World Health Organisation addresses the difficulties presented. GD3: For this grade descriptor you need to demonstrate your planning skills. You need to produce a plan which highlights how you are going to address each assessment criteria and outline how you plan to structure the project. Higher grades will be dependent on the detail and content of your plan and how well it reflects your final project. GD5: One of the key aspects of the project is how it is structured and presented. Consider the organisation of the information you have, including the use of appropriate images, sequence it logically and present it in a well-structured clear and concise manner. You must have an introduction which signposts the reader to the content that they can expect to read in the assignment and a conclusion which summarises and evaluates the information you have included. Harvard referencing is extremely important, you must include it in the text of your project and in a reference list which you need to produce on a separate page. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are very important here so please spell and grammar check and ensure that you proof read your work before submission. Higher grades are available here for work which is accurately and neatly produced. GD7: This is the descriptor which is based entirely on the quality of the assignment as a whole. Well researched and planned answers will be coherent and logically structured; there will be a fluency and flow to your writing and it will make sense. It will then be clear how effectively you understand research methodology and ethical guidelines. The quality of the research, planning and preparation form the basis of high grades here together with the extent to which you respond to the assignment brief.
Declaration of authenticity
|I confirm that the assignment I have submitted is all my own work
|Signature of student:
Epidemiology of Malaria
Malaria is a tropical ailment that affects millions of individual globally. In particular, malaria is a public health issue in over 95 countries affecting 3.2 billion people (WHO, 2016). It is a severe and life-threatening disease that is spread by the plasmodium parasite. It is responsible for millions of deaths annually, a majority of which are in Africa. In fact, Africa bears the highest burden of the disease. Malaria is a leading cause of death amongst pregnant mothers and children under the age of five. Some of the other population groups that are at an elevated level of contracting The WHO highlights that in 2015, there were 214 million cases of malaria globally. Of these, there were 430000 deaths. The Africa region suffered the highest number of deaths, with 90% of the deaths being from Africa. Moreover, children under the age of five accounted for more than 66% of total deaths.
As noted, the malaria disease is spread by the plasmodium parasite. The disease is spread by the female Anopheles mosquitoes. The mode of transmission is through bites. According to the WHO, there are over 400 different species of the Anopheles mosquito, whereby around 30 are malaria vectors. Bites occur between dusk and dawn. Several factors affect the intensity of transmission, including the vector, human host, and the environment. The mosquitoes lay their eggs in water. The eggs hatch into larvae which mature into mosquitoes. In order to nourish their eggs, the female mosquitoes seek a blood meal. Areas where mosquitoes have a longer lifespan generally experience a higher intensity of transmission, because, during this period, the parasite has enough time to mature. Moreover, this intensity is further compounded where the mosquito has a preference to bite humans. The African vector species exhibits these qualities, and this is why Africa experiences almost 90% of cases (WHO, 2016). The other reasons are related to the environment amongst other factors.
Climatic conditions exert an influence on the survival of mosquitoes. Such climatic conditions include the level of rainfall and the temperature. Certain climatic conditions will favor increased intensity of transmission. This is especially where such climatic conditions occur in areas where individuals have low immunity to malaria (WHO, 2016). Alternatively, individuals with low immunity may move to areas where there is a high intensity of transmission, and this can also lead to an epidemic. Immunity increases with increased exposure, although individuals never achieve full immunity. This thus explains the elevated risk of young children.
The World Health Organization plays an important role in the mitigation of the spread of malaria. Malaria is a public health issue of major global concern. Most recently, in May 2015, the world health assembly adopted the WHO global technical strategy for Malaria 2016-2030 (WHO, 2016). The WHO was part of a process to develop this strategy, which involved 400 technical experts from 70 countries. The targets of the strategy include the reduction of incidence of cases by 90% by 2030 and a similar reduction in mortalities, to eliminate the disease in 35 countries by 2030, and the prevention of malaria resurgence in all malaria-free countries.
The global efforts to control and eliminate malaria by the WHO are coordinated by the WHO Global Malaria Programme (GMP). To achieve this, the GMP engages in a number of activities, such as independent score-keeping on global progress, the development of capacity building and systems strengthening approaches, and the identification of threats to the control of malaria (WHO, 2016). The GMP is assisted in its role by the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC), which comprises of 15 experts appointed through a nomination process. The MPAC meet twice a year. Yet this is just a snippet of what the WHO does with regard to malaria.
There are other areas of malaria work in which the WHO engages. They are divided into three categories. The first is key initiatives; the second is health topics and the third is on cross-cutting issues. The global technical strategy for malaria (2016-2030) falls under the first category of key initiatives. Other key initiatives include the Rapid Access Expansion program (RAcE) and the Regional hub for the greater Mekong subregion. The aim of the RAcE program is to reduce childhood mortalities associated with malaria and diarrhea. The latter initiative, on the other hand, targets a reduction in incidences of malaria in the greater Mekong subregion, which includes countries such as Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam.
The second area of work for the WHO is health topics. Some of the health topics covered include community case management,elimination, diagnostic testing, preventive therapies, treatment, and surveillance. Some of these topics are briefly discussed. Under community case management, the WHO endeavors to diagnose and commence treatment of malaria in children less than five years within the home or community setting (WHO, 2016). The drug resistance and containment program aims at monitoring the use of treatment to determine the efficacy of treatment. Under this initiative, the WHO also aims to detect any resistance to drugs early and respond appropriately. Finally, under malaria prevention, the WHO targets disruption of mosquito-borne malaria transmission within a given geographical area, particularly a country. There are numerous other areas of contribution by the WHO.
In the recent years, malaria has seemed to resurge due to a number of variables. One such variable is climate change. Malaria is one of the projected outcomes of climate change, and together with other illnesses such as diarrhea and malnutrition, is expected to contribute to 250000 deaths per year between 2030 and 2050 (WHO, 2015). The contribution of malaria to these deaths is projected at 60 000. The World Health Organization notes that it is strongly influenced by climatic conditions. The mechanisms by which climate modifies malaria has already been outlined.
Globalization is another factor that has affected malaria
infection rates. Globalization has facilitated collaboration between different
stakeholders with the aim of tackling major issues including those in health.
At the same time, globalization is also responsible for the aggravation of
health, particular in reference to infectious diseases. Globalization is
associated with an increase in pathogen flows, through the movement of people (Labonté, Mohindra, & Schrecker, 2011). Some of the
instances of diseases where this flow has been prevalent include pandemic
influenza and drug-resistant tuberculosis. While the transmission of malaria is
principally determined by climate features and ecology (Hanefeld, 2015), it has not been an
exception to the effects of globalization. Knobler, Mahmoud, & Lemon (2006)
indicate that over a 20 year period, the percentage of the population living in
areas where malaria is endemic has increased from 20% to 40%. Evidently,
globalization has an adverse effect on the efforts against infectious disease
such as malaria.
Hanefeld, J. (2015). Globalization and health . Maidenhead: McGraw Hill Education, Open University Press.
Knobler, S., Mahmoud, A. A., & Lemon, S. M. (2006). The impact of globalization on infectious disease emergence and control: Exploring the consequences and opportunities: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Labonté, R., Mohindra, K., & Schrecker, T. (2011). The growing impact of globalization for health and public health practice. Public Health, 32(1), 263.
WHO. (2015, September). Climate change and health. Retrieved from World health Organization: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/
WHO. (2016). Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/gho/malaria/en/
WHO. (2016, April). Malaria. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/