The purpose of this assignment is to increase learners’ comprehension of management roles, viewpoints, and theories.
Resources: Ch. 2 of Management: A Practical Introduction, sample leadership theory table.
Select three management theories from the textbook.
PART 1 – Summarize the theory and viewpoint(s) in a table. Please use the leadership theory table template provided.
PART 2 – Develop a 1,000 – 1,200 word report including the following:
Briefly discuss an overview of management.
Include the roles managers play.
Examine the development of management theories, including how these theories reflected the changing business environment.
Compare and contrast the three management theories you included in your leadership theory table.
Include in-text citations and at least one academic/scholarly article reference from the UOP Library.
Evaluate which of the three management theories works best for your work environment or an organization with which you are familiar.
Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines.
Part I – Management Theories
|Scientific management theory||Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1915)||Analysis and redesigning of jobs.Specialization, technical skills.Job efficiency.Planing and scheduling of work. Selecting, training, and developing employees scientifically. Use of incentives (wages and bonuses)|
|Administrative theory||Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925)||Distinction between operating and management functions.Planning, coordinating, controlling, organizing, controlling, and commanding.Effective management through principles.|
|Behavioral theory||Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) Douglas McGregor (1908 – 1970)||Importance of human relations in the workplace.Focus on the employees.Emphasizes human skills.Needs, attitudes, and motivation.Need for reorientation of managerial thinking.|
Part II – Management Theories
According to Miles (2012), effective managers focus on the achievement of organizational objectives through the efficient implementation and management of various functions. Success in management depends on the ability of the manager to plan, organize, lead, and control effectively. The planning function involves the creation of objectives and outlining a clear strategy of how they will be achieved. The organization of the resources is critical for the achievement of the set objectives and, therefore, the manager must delegate, coordinate tasks, and allocate resources well. Influencing employees to work towards the achievement of the objectives through efficient leadership forms an important aspect of management. The communication of the objectives and motivation of employees to work towards their achievement is equally important. Moreover, there is a need for mangers to monitor progress and take corrective actions to ensure the objectives are met (Lussier, 2015). While these management functions are important for success, managers must integrate different skills/competences as guided by knowledge and management/leadership theories in the performance of other roles for successful organizational development.
Apart from the management functions, managers have interpersonal, decisional, and informational roles to perform. These roles influence the organization’s efficiency and relations with the society significantly. To start with, interpersonal roles require the manager to apply a set of skills such as communication and other human skills to perform management functions. Managers may play figurehead, leader, or liaison roles depending on events, functions, or managerial expectations. For instance, managers act as leaders to motivate, influence, train, or to communicate efficiently (Lussier, 2015). Secondly, human/communication skills are applicable for informational roles such as monitoring, disseminating information, or acting as a company’s spokesperson. The informational role ensures that managers communicate effectively to staff, stakeholders, or the public if required to do so. Lastly, managers have decisional roles that include negotiations, entrepreneurial tasks, resource allocation, and handling of disturbance. The application of decision-making, conceptual and other soft skills in the performance of decisional roles is essential (Newton, 2011). The decisional roles ensure the smooth operation of the organization thus promoting productivity, efficiency, and quality.
The development of management theories over the years continues to influence the constantly changing business environment significantly. The development of the theories advances to deal with management mistakes of the past. Management practitioners developed various theories that remain critical in management hitherto. The major management theories include the classical, behavioral, contingency theories, management science, and systems theory among others. The classical theories were developed in the 1900s in the quest to influence increased performance and efficiency in the management of jobs (Lussier, 2015). Major classical theories include scientific and administrative theories. The former emphasized analysis of jobs and redesigning the jobs to ensure effective accomplishment of their descriptions while the latter set a distinction between managerial and operating activities outlining today’s management functions (Kinicki, Scott-Ladd, & Perry, 2014). The behavioral theories in the early to mid-twentieth century with emphasis placed on the behavior of employees other than the job. The theorists, Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Elton Mayo (1880-1949), and Douglas McGregor (1906-1964), developed the Hierarchy of Needs, pioneered human relations movement, and Theory X and Theory Y respectively (Adetule, 2013). The theories depict a changing environment from one relying mainly on technical skills and placing emphasis on the job to a broader view that understood the importance of employee needs, attitudes, and feelings in management.
The management science and integrative perspective theories were developed in the 1950s. Management theorists focused mainly on the application of mathematics in decision-making and solving problems. The approach responded to increasing need for application of mathematical models in the work environment mainly in finance, operations management, and information systems’ management. The integrative approach included theories such as sociotechnical, contingency, and systems theory, which focus on the integration of organization’s interrelationships, technology and people, and determination and application of the best approach depending on situations (Kinicki, Scott-Ladd, & Perry, 2014). The theories are a reflection of the changing business environment; development of the service industry, increased competition, and struggle as countries strived to recover from the effects of the WWII (Lussier, 2015).
The scientific management, administrative, and behavioral theories compare and differ significantly. Their application influences management greatly. Therefore, there is a need for the consideration of the most effective management/leadership theory for specific organizations. The scientific management theory focuses mainly on analysis and redesigning jobs and ensuring that they can be accomplished effectively (Lussier, 2015). It involves basic principles for the development of procedures for jobs, promotion of job specialization, selection, training, and development of employees, planning and scheduling, establishment of schedules and methods for different tasks, and the effective use of wage incentives. The administrative theory is a classical theory like the scientific management theory. It emphasizes on management through the functions of planning, coordinating, organizing, controlling, and commanding. While scientific management offers insight on production efficiency, standardization, and specialization, Fayol’s administrative theory offers the 14 principles for effective management and emphasizes the importance of structured organizations, application of principles, skills, and function to the achievement of organizational objectives (Newton, 2011).
The behavioral theories compare and differ significantly from the scientific and administrative theories. Like the classical theories, these focus on the determination of the most effective way of leading and managing in all organizations (Lussier, 2015). However, they focus on the behaviors of employees and emphasize the importance of tapping into human skills rather than technical skills as emphasized by the scientific management and administrative theorists (Kinicki, Scott-Ladd, & Perry, 2014).
In conclusion, the different
management approaches have different outcomes when applied. It is difficult to achieve
effectiveness in organizational management by applying one specific management approach.
The integration of different management approaches guarantees efficiency and
profitability. For instance, the integration of classical approaches
(scientific management and administrative theories) with behavioral and
integrative theory (for example systems theory) promotes efficiency. Classical
approaches improve purpose, enhance structure, managerial hierarchy, and
technical requirements while behavioral theory ensures attention to attitudes, social
factors, and leadership. Moreover, the systems theory ensures effective
integration of the classical and behavioral approach boosting organizational
efficiency in terms of productivity, performance, and profitability.
Adetule, J. (2013). Handbook on management theories. Bloomington: Author House.
Kinicki, A., Scott-Ladd, B. D., & Perry, M. (2014). Management : a practical introduction. North Ryde, N.S.W.: McGraw-Hill Education.
Lussier, R. N. (2015). Management Fundamentals : Concepts, Applications, & Skill Development. Los Angeles, California: SAGE.
Miles, J. A. (2012). Management and Organization Theory : a Jossey-Bass Reader. Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons.
Newton, R. (2011). The management book : mastering the art of leading teams. New York: Prentice Hall.