-Identify receptor neuron responsible for sending information from her finger to her peripheral nervous system. (3 pts)
-Determine if the receptor neuron is an afferent or efferent neuron. (3 pts)
Explains where the information from the receptor neuron is sent and how it results in Amy moving her finger away from the stove. (6 pts)
What is a Case Study?“A case study is a narrative used to help you practice real-life analysis and communication skills. It is a learning tool that provides readers with “enough detail…to understand the nature and scope of the problem, and…serve as a springboard for discussion and learning” (O’Rourke, 2007, p. 391).Use your textbook and academic resources from the Kaplan Library to support your responses.Access the Kaplan Library directly from Course Home for this class, or through the student portal. Be sure to cite and reference all your sources. The Kaplan Library has a feature that allows you to automatically create an APA formatted reference.Your completed case study should be between 750–1000 words, and all sources must be properly cited using APA format.Amy is cooking dinner for her family. She moves to pull a pot off the stove and accidently touches the burner. She reflexively pulls her finger away from the stove and immediately feels the pain.
Which receptor neuron is responsible for sending information from her finger to her peripheral nervous system?
Is this receptor neuron, an afferent or efferent neuron?
-Explain where the information from the receptor neuron is sent and how does it result in Amy moving her finger away from the stove.
-How many neurons are typically involved in this response? What are the names of these neurons?
-Evolutionarily, why do you think the human body has this system in place?
What might happen if we did not have this response?
-Glen, who is 45 years old, begins to notice that his hands shake (tremors) when he is performing everyday tasks such as signing his signature. His family members have noticed that he also has muffled speech and tends to shuffle when he walks. He is diagnosed with Early Onset Parkinson’s disease.
-What is Early Onset Parkinson’s disease?
-What specific cell type is affected in Parkinson’s disease?
-What is dopamine? What effects does dopamine have on the body?
-Explain the structure of a synapse and why Glen’s neurologist would prescribe him a dopamine agonist?
-Glen has genetic testing performed and it is determined that he does carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the SNCA gene associated with Early Onset Parkinson’s disease. Glen has three children. Would you advise his children to have genetic testing performed to determine if they also carry the disease mutation? Why or why not?
-Patricia, who is 37 years old, discusses with her physician recent symptoms that she has experienced including blurred vision, numbness in her fingers and face, dizziness, fatigue and weakness. The physician performs multiple neurological tests and she is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS).
-What is MS?
Is MS a disease of the central or peripheral nervous system?
What is the main cell structure affected in MS?
How is the action potential of a neuron affected in MS?
-The origin of MS are not clear. What do scientists hypothesize to be the causes of MS?Identifies how many neurons are typically involved in this response. (3 pts) -Lists the names of these neurons. (3 pts)
-Describe why evolutionarily the human body has this system in place. (4 pts)
Describe what might happen if we did not have this response. (3 pts)
-Describes Early Onset Parkinson’s disease. (4 pts)
-Identify the specific cell type affected in Parkinson’s disease. (3 pts)
-Define dopamine. (2 pts)
-Explain the effect that dopamine has on the body. ( 4 pts)
-Explain the structure of a synapse (4 pts) Explains why Glen’s neurologist would -prescribe him a dopamine agonist. (4 pts)
-Describe how you would advise Glen’s children on genetic testing. (4 pts)25
-Describes multiple sclerosis (MS). (5 pts)
– Identifies whether MS is a disease of the central or peripheral nervous system. (3 pts)
-Identify the main cell structure affected in MS. (4 pts)
-Explain how the action potential of a neuron is affected in MS. (7 pts)
-Describe the various scientific hypotheses for the causes of MS. (6 pts)
Organization, logic, details
Communication shows order, logic, and unification. (2 pts for each question)
Content Accurate use of scientific terminology enhances the project. (1 pt for each question)3
Project meets the minimum word requirements of 750 words. Spelling/ Grammar
Free of any spelling/grammatical/ word choice errors.
3APA style references*Follows APA style for parenthetical/in-text citations and reference page.3
Sources are provided and and are scientifically valid.
The body of the paper follows APA formatting guidelines including title page, spacing, font size, paragraph style and margins.
Page 2 of 5
NERVOUS SYSTEM ASSIGNMENT HELP.
Sensory neurons are responsible for conveying sensory information such as sound, feeling, and sight throughout the nervous system. Sensory input triggers these neurons, and then they direct projections to other components in the nervous system, which eventually they relay this information to the spinal cord or the brain. Different kinds of receptors usually react to various types of stimulus. For example, when complex organisms receive excessive stimulation in the peripheral sensory neuron, electrical impulses are sent down the nerve fiber making the central nervous system trigger a motor or sensory neuron. In the case of Amy the excessive stimulation triggered motor neurons which resulted in withdrawal from the stove and feeling pain. Sensations such as pain, cold, pressure, and heat are included in the somatic sensory system.
The receptor neuron responsible for this reaction is called the nociceptor (the danger neuron). It is an afferent neuron because it brings information from the body organs to the brain or the spinal cord. When danger receptor is stimulated by the heat, a signal is sent to the spinal cord through the sensory nerve. This sensory nerve synapses with ipsilateral motor neurons and works to withdraw the finger from the stove. The human body has this system to help avoid pain and discomfort. Evolutionarily, the nervous system has helped man distinguish between various sensations, seek pleasure, and avoid dangerous situations. Without the nervous system, the body parts of a human being would not be able to communicate with one another.
Parkinson’s is a disease that usually affects the central nervous system. This disease is common among people above the age of sixty years. Those who get affected before fifty years have Early Onset Parkinson’s. The disease affects neurons located in the part of the brain known as the substantia nigra and the basal ganglia.
The nerve cells in this region of the brain are responsible for producing a neurotransmitter called dopamine. Dopamine is an organic chemical neurotransmitter which is responsible for regulating emotional responses, attention, memory, mood, sleep, learning, and movement. Dopamine also helps control pleasure and reward centers in the brain. Deficiency or excess of dopamine may result to numerous health conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. When there is a shortage of dopamine, a person’s movement may become uncoordinated or delayed. A synapse facilitates transmission between two neurons. Every synapse has a microscopic space called the synaptic cleft where substances diffuse. A doctor would prescribe a dopamine agonist to a Parkinson’s disease patient because they mimic dopamine and activate transmitters.
Carrying an autosomal dominant mutation means that the disease can be inherited through families. Therefore, it would be advisable for Glen’s children to get genetic testing (O’Rourke, 2007).
Multiple sclerosis (MS)is a condition that results from the abnormal response of the body’s immune going against the central nervous system. The disease usually affects the central nervous system by disturbing the flow of information between the brain and other parts of the body. The central nervous system is constituted of the optic nerves, brain, and the spinal cord. MS is referred to be an immune-mediated process rather than an autoimmune since it hits the immune cells that are very sensitive to attack. From the nature of the MS, it is a condition that affects the central nervous system and not the peripheral nervous system.
The MS causes the immune system to the central nervous system (CNS) to attack the myelin. The myelin consists of the fatty layer that insulates and surrounds the nerve fibers. The nerve fibers are also attacked by the CNS. The disease derives its name, sclerosis, from the damage the myelin causes to the scar tissue. . If the myelin is damaged, it affects the speed at which the action potential moves down the axon. Massive interruption and distortion of the nerve impulses traveling to and from the spinal cord and the brain occur due to the damage to the nerve fiber or the myelin sheath. This distortion produces a wide variety of symptoms.
In many instances, the condition is triggered to individuals due to individual’s genetic susceptibility and a combination of the various environmental factors. Patients with MS experience only one of the four disease courses. These courses can either be severe, moderate or mild. MS is caused by environmental factors, immunologic factors, genetic factors, and infectious factors. The immunological factors cause the attack of the myelin and nerve fibers. According to the environmental factors, the disease is more prevalent in areas far away from the equator. Infectious factors cause the disease due to inflammation and demyelination reasons. These infectious reasons are caused by the exposure viral and bacterial infections. Despite the fact that the disease is not hereditary, having a relative with the condition increases the chances of one being infected (Berhardt, 2011).
Berhardt, L. (2011) https://www.amazon.com/Advances-Medicine-Biology-Leon-Berhardt/dp/1613243596 . . Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science.
O’Rourke, R. (2007). Naval transformation. [Washington, D.C.]: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.