Open the SPSS software (either the Afrobarometer or High School Longitudinal Study dataset). It doesn’t matter which one.
~Construct a research question that can be answered with One-way ANOVA.
~Write only a 2 paragraph analysis of research.
~Include a Post-Hoc tests with an analysis of the strength of any relationship found.
~Display the data for the output.
~Provide implications of social change.
Do people who often go without food perceive lower levels of democracy than those who less often or never go without food? One-way ANOVA
The research was designed to determine whether the frequency one goes without food affects his or her perception of the level of democracy in Africa. A one-way ANOVA analysis was used to determine whether the dependent variable (level of democracy today) is affected by the factor (how often gone without food) (Frankfort-Nachmias, & Leon-Guerrero, 2015). The post-hoc test was then used to determine if there are any significant differences in the means between the different groups (never, just once or twice, several times, many times, and always gone without food) (Laureate Education, 2016h).
|Q46a. Level of democracy: today|
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
From the ANOVA table, it is clear that there is a statistically significant difference in the mean level of democracy today between the different levels of availability of food. The significance value is 0.000, which is less than the acceptable 0.05 level of significance. However, to make a more informed conclusion, it is important to know the specific groups that were significantly different. The information can be obtained from the results of the post hoc test contained in the Multiple Comparisons table (Laureate Education, 2016h).
|Dependent Variable: Q46a. Level of democracy: today|
|(I) Q8a. How often gone without food||(J) Q8a. How often gone without food||Mean Difference (I-J)||Std. Error||Sig.||95% Confidence Interval|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound|
|Bonferroni||Never||Just once or twice||.262*||.039||.000||.15||.37|
|Just once or twice||Never||-.262*||.039||.000||-.37||-.15|
|Just once or twice||-.107||.046||.204||-.24||.02|
|Just once or twice||-.262*||.051||.000||-.41||-.12|
|Just once or twice||-.638*||.086||.000||-.88||-.40|
|*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.|
From the table, it is clear that group that has never gone without food is significantly different from the group that has only gone without food once or twice with a significance value that is less than 0.005. The other groups are also significantly different from each other except for the group that goes without food just once or twice and the group that goes without food several times. The difference between the two groups is not statistically significant because of the large significance value of 0.204, which is greater than 0.05. The Means Plots figure shows that the mean level of democracy is highest among those who have never gone without food followed by those who have gone without food only once or twice and the mean declines down the groups. Those who always go without food have the least mean in their perceptions of the level of democracy. The results of the study indicate that increasing food availability for citizens through interventions like relief aid and creating job opportunities can help in boosting their perceptions of the levels of democracy.