Research Paper: Voluntary Sports
This research workbook has two strands: one with a qualitative focus and one with a quantitative focus.
- The qualitative strand is based around the following research question:
“To identify and analyse the key management challenges facing voluntary sports clubs.”
- The quantitative strand is based around the following research question:
“To critically analyse the factors that influence sport and physical activity participation by BME women and girls.”
Your workbook should contain the following headings to clearly distinguish each element:
1a: Mini Literature Review (Qualitative)
1b: Mini Literature Review (Quantitative)
2a: Data Collection Tool: Interview (Qualitative)
2b: Data Collection Tool: Questionnaire (Quantitative)
3a: Data Analysis: Interview Transcripts Analysis (Qualitative)
3b: Data Analysis: Questionnaire Data Analysis (Quantitative)
Thus there should be six workbook headings in your submission.
are required to complete both strands
- i.e. you cannot chose to do just one strand.
- You should make every effort to complete the tasks each week, rather than ‘save’ them until later.
Task 1: Mini literature review (c. 300 words per strand)
You will be provided with a starter reading and a choice of a further reading which will give the study a specific focus. Through independent study you should then identify two further readings (for each strand) that are connected to the two initial ones. These can be academic book chapters and /or journal articles.
For each strand you have to:
- Analyse the readings and identify, define and discuss the key concepts that would underpin a study to answer the research question.
- Summarise the main lines of enquiry arising from your review of the literature.
- Provide an indicative reading list of 10 additional journal articles / book chapters (in Harvard style) which might reasonable form the basis of a more substantive review of the relevant literature.
1a) For the qualitative strand of your research workbook, please read the following book chapter:
- Nicholls, G (2013) Voluntary Sports Clubs and Sport Development. In Hylton, K. (ed) (2013) Sport Development: Policy, Process and Practice. [3rd ed] London: Routledge. pp.213-229 (available as an e-book).
Then choose one of the following themes to specialise in, and read the accompanying chapter, which is also in the Hylton’s (2013) Sport Development book:
- Sport Policy: see the chapter by Wolsey and Abrams.
- Partnerships: see the chapter by Robson and Partington.
- Resources: see the chapter by Taylor.
Then, do some independent research and find two additional sources/readings that are connected to the issues discussed in the first two sources. Then, review all four sources and write a coherent review of this literature.
Then, at the end of the
review provide an indicative reading list of 10 further readings liked to your
1b) For the quantitative strand of your research workbook, please read:
- Higgins, V. and Dale, A. (2013) Ethnic differences in sports participation in England European Journal for Sport and Society. 10 (3): 215-239. Doi http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/16138171.2013.11687920
Then, choose the theme of a) Community Sport Development or b) Sociology to specialise in:
- Community Sport Development: Maxwell, H., Foley, C., Taylor, T. and Burton, C. (2013) Social Inclusion in Community Sport: A Case Study of Muslim Women in Australia. Journal of Sport Management. 27 (6) 467 – 481.
- Sociology: Farooq Samiea, S. (2013) Hetero-sexy self/body work and basketball: The invisible sporting women of British Pakistani Muslim heritage. South Asian Popular Culture (Special Issue: Sport and South Asian Diasporas). 11 (3): 257-270
Then, do some independent research and find two further readings that are connected to the issues discussed in the first two sources. Review all four sources and provide a coherent review of this literature. Then, at the end of the review provide an indicative reading list of 10 further readings liked to your selected theme.
You need to review four (4) texts for the Qualitative strand and four (4) for the Quantitative strand.
The reference list is not included in the word count.
Task 2: Design a data collection tool
Note: a word count is not appropriate for these two tasks.
2a: Interview design (Qualitative strand)
Using the lines of enquiry identified at the end of your Qualitative review of literature, prepare a semi-structured interview schedule which could be used in an interview with a senior person within a medium-sized or large voluntary sports club. The interview schedule should be sufficient detailed that, if conducted properly, would allow the interview to last 30 minutes. The interview should have a logical structure (containing an introduction and close to the interview, the key themes to be discussed, and relevant prompts). It should be sufficiently flexible enough to accommodate shifts in direction and unanticipated elements. You should present the schedule ‘ready to use’ by an interviewer.
2b: Questionnaire design (Quantitative strand)
Using the lines of enquiry/themes/issues identified in your Quantitative review of literature, prepare an online questionnaire aimed at obtaining the views of black and minority ethnic women and girls (16+) regarding the factors which affect their sport and physical activity participation. It is recommend you use google forms. The online questionnaire should incorporate a range of different formats (open /closed questions, scale, etc) and augmented with a small number of text-based questions. It should take between 5-10 minutes to complete under normal circumstances.
The seminar for this session will take place in a
computer lab (check your timetable). It will be a ‘hands-on’ session and there
will not be any supporting material on MyBeckett; however, you can use the
‘help’ that can be found on Google Forms – specifically ‘Create a survey using
Task 3: Data analysis
3a: Qualitative data analysis (c.400 words)
You will be provided with the transcripts of four interviews conducted along the lines of the one you were asked to design. Using the concepts and themes identified in your mini-literature review you should analyse the interview data. This is an interpretative exercise in which you should attempt to reach conclusions regarding the most important management challenges facing voluntary sports clubs, with particular reference to the specific lens (policy, partnerships or resources) that you adopted in your mini-literature review. This analysis should present one or two of the most compelling aspects of the data (in the form of short quotes) and provide a (referenced) narrative commentary to explain what has been found.
3b: Quantitative data analysis (c.400 words)
You will be provided with a ‘Final report’ on Sport and Leisure for BME women
You are to offer a 400 word critique of the report based on the issues raised in your literature review. You will need to offer a brief summary of the report and comment on their chosen methodological approach, the methods used to collect the data, and the presentation of the data. You should identify areas of strength and any aspect of the study you feel could be improved upon. You should also comment on their findings in reference to what you found in your review of literature. Based on this report, did they ‘answer’ the aims and objectives they set themselves?
Ensure the workbook is presented to a high standard.Please refer to MyBeckett and your notes from the lectures / seminars
Research Paper: Voluntary Sports
Task 1: Mini Literature Review
1a. Qualitative Analysis
Voluntary Sports is a practice on the increase in the contemporary society. There are high numbers of individuals who get to practice sports in a number of ways. Through the development of a selection for specific sports, most people indulge in the activities as either recreational or as a career. Notably, this is also supported by the increasing drive in the community to ensure that the health statuses of people in the community are up to the required standards. Nonetheless, women have seen an increased involvement in sport activities in the recent years. Through the involvement of women, numerous clubs have come up with membership and registration services to ensure that they utilize the opportunity to instruct the women in the best manner possible. Thus, through the clubs, it is notable that women will carry out activities with the deserving attitude.
Clubs have been formed in the society to help with the integration sporting activities among the select group of women. Through the creation of certain means to instruct the women and get their time to come to the clubs, they have become institutionalized and deserve managerial models to help with the formulation of certain measures to run their activities. The contemporary times have seen a number of issues affect the management of clubs where women train in most times. Policy formulation however stands out among the challenges that women face in the sport clubs.
Policies play a critical role in whatever a club conducts, as well as the appreciation of its activities by the members. Through the problem of policy formulation, the club’s management lack the most efficient policies that will bring members of different lifestyles to the institution. Therefore, through the inefficient policy formulation, it is notable that clubs undergo a number of problems which lead to even greater inefficiency in the administration of services.
1b. Quantitative Analysis
A large number of individuals in the society participate in sports for the purpose of ameliorating their health statuses. However, the participation of women and girls in sports is affected by a number of factors. Through the use of a questionnaire, different factors have come to bring out the great difference between sport participation in the female gender across all the ethnic societies. Notably, most individuals prefer sporting facilities that are inclusive of all the people, as multiculturalism comes in handy when dealing with different members of the society. The factor of sporting therefore makes it easier to look into the ethic integration discrepancies and how they affect sporting among women.
The ethnic orientation of individuals stand out as a great issue in the activity of women and girls in the society. Ethnic backgrounds greatly determine the rate at which individuals participate in sporting activities and what they should carry out to integrate the culture within them. Research keenly enumerates that the black and south Asian women have a low participation in the community sports. Nonetheless, the first generation Asians have a difficult time participating in sports due to their poor economic backgrounds and their migrant statuses in the society. These issues go into limiting the minority ethnic communities from participating in sporting activities in the most efficient manner.
Community sporting development should be picked to ensure that individuals participate in the voluntary sporting activities. Through the generation of a general inclusion policy, sporting can be accommodated by individuals from various ethnic communities as well as social statuses. Through an inclusion policy furthermore, an individual woman will have the ability to get help from fellow women in the society regardless of their ethnic background. Social inclusion in sporting therefore stands out as a greatly crucial issue that requires address.
Task 2: Design a data Collection Tool
2a. Qualitative Design (interview)
Description of Interview: The interview which will be conducted to the managers of the biggest voluntary sporting club will have a number of key issues to look into. Primarily, the interview with the executives will look into the activities of the club and analyze the manner in which individuals carry out a number of activities within the club environment. The interview will also look into the manner in which management handles a number of issues in the club. The challenges of the club will be enumerated to ensure that they are exhausted and brought to the light of the research team.
Nature of Questioning: the interview will be flexible and will accommodate the venture into different relevant topics by the interviewee.
Type of Questioning: The questioning in the interview will be open ended in a manner that looks into certain issues of a great value to the management problems. The questions will revolve around management and the issues that face women in their clubs. Moreover, policy formulation in the clubs pertaining to a number of activities will also be reviewed critically to reveal the underlying issues.
Role of probing: The interview should look into the management challenges that individual clubs face when handling women in the voluntary sports option. Moreover, the interview will also look into the manner in which policy formulations stands to affect women in the clubs.
Some of the questions in the interview will include the following:
- What are the challenges that you face when handling your members?
- Are there any instances of ethnic biasness or inferiority?
- How do you handle issues related to the development of a schedule to accommodate everyone in the club?
- What sources of finance do you have to obtain the relevant tools for exercising?
2b. Quantitative Research
The following online questionnaire looks into the manner in which the minority population in the society are affected by different factors in physical activity and sporting activities. Through the questionnaire, a result will be founded to help with the creation of an explanation to some of the reasons as to why different activities are not embraced by members of the minority group in the society. Moreover, the questionnaire is open to individuals who are of the age 16 and above. The age bracket is integral in the formulation of policies therefore their views will be well looked into.
- What are some of the beliefs that you have pertaining voluntary sporting activities?
- Do you have the facilities to carry out these activities in the rightful way?
- What do you think is a problem hindering most minority population individuals from looking into the development of a better system to include psychical activity schedules?
- Have you ever participated in a club on a physical activity schedule? If yes, what are some of the things that made you stop, and if you continue, what are your motivating factors to include with the activity, If No, what are some of the reasons as to why you do not participated, and have you ever considered the decision.
- Do you support voluntary sporting activities and what changes can you recommend to ensure that the individual members who are interested get to have the best experience.
- Do you ever wish to become a part of the physical fitness clubs and voluntary sporting activities?
- How many clubs are in tour locale and what is the distance of the nearest club to your house?
- Would you advise a person to go to the nearest voluntary sports club that you if the problems were changed.
Task 3: Data Analysis
3a. Qualitative Analysis
Sporting activities are greatly on the increase in the modern society. Through voluntary sporting, individuals get to achieve body fitness as well as interact with other members of the society. Therefore, it is notable that the modern societies experience a great deal of sporting clubs whereby people can register and carry out various activities to mark their development from one phase to another. Therefore, sporting has become a great component of the growth of the society in the modern times. The management of organizations undergo a large number of issues that they are expected to handle with great precision as well as take care of in the best manner which will attract more customers. These clubs, which are rarely placed in some areas of the society already signify an inequality in their service to members of the population. Therefore, it requires a great means of action on the challenges to solve pertinent issues that are relative to the creation of a good and accommodative policy for the different ethnic groups and members of the society. Policy making therefore stands out as a great component of solving issues lying in the clubs.
Voluntary sporting activities in clubs face a large number of problems. Through the voluntary sporting activities, women come in on the basis of their financial restrictions. The ladies and women who come to the clubs in most cases come from the middle class families and the high income earning classes in the society. Through these classes, it is notable that the individual women classify themselves as the economically enabled. The economically disabled women do not have access to the voluntary clubs. On the other hand, the clubs lack a policy that includes all people form the society. An inclusion policy in the clubs will facilitate the development of certain measures that will critically solve the issue of ethnicity in the clubs. A lot of white women go to the clubs, while those of the minority population do not go to the clubs. Therefore, the changes in the system are integral for the creation and realization of value in a number of ways. The inclusion of women through an integrative policy will enhance the activity of the black and Asian women to get into the routine and ensure that they work as per the requirements. The institution of voluntary sports on the other hand stands to have a great deal of problems that require fast address.
3b. Quantitative Analysis
The sport and leisure report for BME women looks into critical issues related to women involvement in sports and leisure in the modern society. Through the report, a great organization is brought out, as an explanation of the important issues are highlighted in the preliminary phases of the report. As a report that looks into the status of women and their involvement in sports in the contemporary society, it is clearly portrayed that there are a great number of issues which revolve round the factor of women getting into the sporting section.
On the other hand, the report advances a number of objectives hat they aim at achieving. The objectives of the report are realistic and can be seen through their approach of the matter. The keen discussion of the topic alongside the delivery of the valuable discourse to the readers makes the report better at targeting the specific member of the society on the ethnicity related issue and the lack of certain equipment. The research looks into a case study of the town of Vale. Through the case study, certain issues are well looked into to help discuss the best means of carrying out activities.
The research utilizes a questionnaire as their data collection tool. The questionnaire by the study explores a number of issues within the sporting community in England. More to the point, the research tackles critical concerns that have a great ground on the pertinent issues that are included in the questionnaire. Through their questionnaire they get to gather relevant information about the research topic and develop the rightful discourse that helps advance value to the topic. According to the outline of the report, they offer figures and tables to provide quantitative evidence of the figures and percentages that should have a better insight. An improvement should be made in the recommendations section whereby the report offers shallow solutions to the problems that are highlighted. These activities enhance the manner in which the report comes clear on certain issues as well as the development of the best platforms to tackle the problems that arise in the society. Therefore, the research is well documented to solve the issues that arise in the sporting culture and address the need for community inclusion in sporting activities to ensure that the right activities are conducted. Through these avenues, there would be a great culture that is free from discrepancies like the present one.
Nicholls, G (2013) Voluntary Sports Clubs and Sport Development. In Hylton, K. (ed) (2013) Sport Development: Policy, Process and Practice. [3rd ed] London: Routledge. pp.213-229 (available as an e-book).
Higgins, V. and Dale, A. (2013) Ethnic differences in sports participation in England European Journal for Sport and Society. 10 (3): 215-239. Doi http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/16138171.2013.11687920
Community Sport Development: Maxwell, H., Foley, C., Taylor, T. and Burton, C. (2013) Social Inclusion in Community Sport: A Case Study of Muslim Women in Australia. Journal of Sport Management. 27 (6) 467 – 481.
Sociology: Farooq Samiea, S. (2013) Hetero-sexy self/body work and basketball: The invisible sporting women of British Pakistani Muslim heritage. South Asian Popular Culture (Special Issue: Sport and South Asian Diasporas). 11 (3): 257-270