Paper #2: Research Utilization (Research/Evidence-based Practice/Global Health) Paper
Topic Selected: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Paper Requirements: Using what you have learned from your assigned reading, please write a review of the literature paper using APA format. This paper will include Appraisal Synopses of four nursing research studies. (You will learn how to do a Research Appraisal Synopsis for your Learning Activities. This is explained in Chapter 16 of your textbook, and a completed Sample Appraisal is on pages 401-404). After deciding on a clinical topic that is relevant to global health, you will access the FIU Library and conduct a Literature Review on your topic for Part B of your paper. You will select four studies and complete a Synopsis Appraisal for each study. The research study articles selected for each Synopsis must be of original nursing research studies, not integrative review articles, and the studies must have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Review Chapter Three on reading research articles before selecting the four studies for this paper. At least TWO of the four research study articles MUST BE written by nurses and published in a peer-reviewed nursing journal. At least ONE of the two nursing research studies must be about nursing in another country (non-USA).
The purpose of the paper is to describe a global health problem that can be explored through research, discuss how this health problem is applicable in both the United States and other countries of the world, and critique four research studies that have been done on this topic. This is a scholarly paper, written as if it were a “Review of the literature” article published in a nursing journal. DO NOT use first person voice. The paper should be 6-8 pages (maximum of 8 pages, not counting the title page, abstract page and reference list). You must use a minimum of 4 research articles for your paper. You may use any of the nursing research journals from your weekly assigned websites. The research study articles will be discussed in the text of the paper, properly cited in the paper, and then properly listed on your reference page. APA format for citing in the text and then citing on the reference pare are required. Use what you have learned about research methods, research studies, and how to read a research article, to select your research study articles. Refer back to Chapter 3 – “Starting Point”- and use those criteria to determine if you have correctly selected a research study article. You will receive or lose points on correct selection of a research study article versus a non-research or review article. At least TWO of the four research study articles MUST BE written by nurses and published in a peer-reviewed nursing journal. At least ONE of the two nursing research studies must be about nursing in another country (non-USA).
PART A. The first part of the paper should clearly define the global health problem, and discuss why it is important for nursing (why you have chosen this topic to write about). Also discuss how this problem is viewed in the United States and then how it is viewed in at least one other country. For example, if you discuss elevated blood pressure in adults, you may discuss guidelines for defining hypertension in the United States (reference the article where the guidelines came from, using APA format). Then find an article from another country and discuss how hypertension is described in that country (reference the article using APA format).
PART B. The second part of the paper will include an Appraisal Synopsis for each of the research studies that you have selected on your topic. This part of the paper will inform the reader about what is known about this problem in the United States population and in at least one other country of the world. For example, in the topic of hypertension, you may choose four research study articles done by nurse researchers that looked at such issues as interventions to improve medication adherence, or adherence to a prescribed diet, or the effect of an exercise intervention in reducing elevated blood pressure. Set up your paper using the following format: Use the heading Part B for this section.
Then use the subheading Study #1; Nursing research Study in the USA. Then appraise and critique the article following the components of Synopsis (textbook pages 401-402).Type the study name, author(s), year of publication, journal and pages, using APA format (same format as will be used on your reference page). Then do a Synopsis of the article. Conclude by discussing implications for practice, policy or further research.
Next use the subheading Study #2-Nursing Research Study Non-USA. Follow the same instructions as for Subheading Study #1.
Next use the subheading Study #3 (this can be a nursing research study from USA or non-USA). Follow the same instructions as for Subheading Study #1.
Next use the subheading Study #4 (this can be a nursing research study from USA or non-USA). Follow the same instructions as for Subheading Study #1.
Part C: This is the conclusion of your paper, and summarizes the key points that you have addressed in your paper.
Uses APA format for paper setup and APA format for references cited in the text and in the reference list. 10%
Uses appropriate grammar and spelling; ideas are clearly articulated, using appropriate sentence structure. 10%
Completes PART A as described. 15%
Completes PART B as described. (Four study articles; each article is 15%) 60% There will be a mandatory deduction of 10% of points per article for articles selected that do not meet the criteria as outlined in the syllabus instructions.
Completes Part C as described. 5%
Research Utilization: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has over the years become a life-threatening disease that could be attributed to most of the deaths across the globe (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015). Like most viruses, this virus does not have a cure as it consistently mutates, leaving no room for the establishment of medications that could handle its immediate form. In general, people living with HIV (PLWHIV) are deprived of life as they once knew it as it is one of the conditions marked with the highest rates of stigmatization. Nevertheless, this condition is even more critical when it comes to women of color living in different countries and regions such as the United States and India due to other confounding factors such as culture, lack of employment, and poor accessibility of health care services (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015; Nyamathi, et al., 2011). As much as technological advancements have been made to aid in diagnosis and management of the disease, a lifetime with an incurable, chronic, and fatal disease is a great challenge for these women even as they are faced with various psychological, physiological, spiritual, and social implications. For women with color, who, in this case, includes black women and Indian women, the challenges are magnified given their additional stresses such as poverty and tradition, which compete with their compliance with the prescribed treatment regimens (Dibb & Kamalesh, 2012).
The problem of living with HIV among African-American women has been well explored in the US. Different researchers have been able to explore the risk factors of HIV among this population, the available options for treatment and management of the disease, and the various challenges that black women living with HIV in the US face (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015). In cohesion, different researchers have been able to identify various stressors among black women living with the disease and have drawn links between the stresses and the heightening of the challenges among these women. With self-care practice being noted as an important aspect in the management of HIV, the influence of various factors such as beliefs, traditions, and values of self-care have been noted as important in defining HIV management and adherence to the treatment regime among African-American Women (Reilly, et al., 2013). In addition, social factors such as stigmatization have been noted to influence how women of color fit into their social setting and the attitude of health care providers towards them (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015).
The same experience is shared in other areas of the world such as India, even as women living with HIV are noted to face tough challenges in their day to day lives, even as they attempt to adhere to the available treatment regimens and prolong their lives. In this case, in as much as most of the women are willing to access HIV care, they are faced with various barriers that hinder accessibility of proper care and expose them to various risks related to the disease (Nyamathi, et al., 2011). Among other factors, the major barriers to accessibility of proper care among HIV positive women in India are poverty, lack of knowledge, and gender inequality. Various similarities are noted in challenges faced by women living with HIV in India and those in the US, including the challenge of gender inequality and that of poverty. Socio-cultural conditions such as the traditions, beliefs and values that govern the behavior and interactions of women have also been noted to be of great importance to the general living and health support seeking behavior of women of color (Dibb & Kamalesh, 2012). As such, it is clear that women are exposed to various challenges, ranging from individual to societal, which impede their efforts and desires to seek proper care that would allow them to effectively manage HIV and improve their daily lives. Thus, this paper recognizes the importance of governments and other concerned stakeholders to establish proper measures that would ensure that barriers to proper health care among women living with HIV in different countries and regions across the globe are well addressed.
Study #1: Nursing research Study in the USA
The Paper by Peltzer, Domian, and Teel addresses the daily living experiences of African-American women living with HIV and AIDS in the US. The topic has been well explored with the authors specifying their aim of exploring the challenges of this population, even as they go about their daily lives. The authors applied Heideggerian hermeneutical phenomenology as the research method to explore the daily lives of African women living with HIV, with the intention of discovering the various aspects of their lives that have an influence on the practice of self-care (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015). The authors established an inclusion criteria based on which individual participants were identified. With this criteria, only US-born African-American women, aged between 18 and 35 years, able to read and speak English, and seropositive for HIV were included in the study. On the other hand, the exclusion criteria included any presence of a neurological disorder, such as dementia, that would interfere with cognition. (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015) As such, the authors were able to select 11 participants with the help of case managers. The tool used to collect data involved interviews, which were conducted in environments that were deemed comfortable by the interviewees (Peltzer, Domian, & Teel, 2015).
Study #2-Nursing Research Study in India
Nyamathi et al. (2011) extensively exploited the research topic by addressing the various challenges that women living with HIV in India face throughout their day to day living. The authors are keen to identify not only the various challenges that are faced by these women, but also the hope that they have for bettering their lives. The authors employ the qualitative research methodology while using focused groups to collect data, with the intention of understanding the various experiences of these women both from an individual and a societal perspective (Nyamathi, et al., 2011). The inclusion criteria for the participants included women of the age 18 or above, on ART, and able to communicate in Telegu or English. The women were selected from the public health center (PHC). As a result, the authors were able to come up with a sample of 39 women living with HIV (Nyamathi, et al., 2011). The focused groups were taped and the transcripts manually analyzed by trained assistants. The authors found out that there were various barriers ranging from physical, to psychological, to social that hampered adherence of the women to treatment and hence suggested that HIV interventions should be locally provided to increase the chances of adherence.
Study #3: Nursing research Study in the UK
Dibb and Kamalesh (2012) have been able, through their research, to explore the adjustment of African women living with HIV in the UK to life with the disease. The study aims at going a step further in research to identify not only the various challenges that are faced by women of color living with HIV, to identify the various initiatives that have been put in place to ensure that such women forego their challenges and that they are able to effectively transit into a normal life with the disease (Dibb & Kamalesh, 2012). The topic is well addressed by the author with a clear definition of the intended purpose of the paper, which was to establish the various efforts put in place by the women living with HIV in the UK towards bettering their lives. The author used a qualitative study design to collect data while employing interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in the analysis of the obtained data. Snowball and opportunistic sampling were used to obtain a sample of the targeted population (Dibb & Kamalesh, 2012). The inclusion criteria included African women who had been diagnosed with HIV for more than 6 months, had been born to African parents and raised in Africa up to a year or more, and fluently spoke English. As such a homogeneous sample comprising of a total of 12 participants was obtained. The authors established that African women living with HIV could be motivated to live positively through the establishment of coping strategies such as downward comparison (Dibb & Kamalesh, 2012).
Study #4: Nursing research Study in the US
In the study by Reilly et al. (2013), the authors carefully review the prevalence rate of HIV among black women in the US, specifically in New York. The authors adequately explain the topic, comparing self-reported cases of HIV among the study sample and the actual prevalence of the disease among the population. The authors used respondent driven sampling to recruit heterosexual African women into the study as participants (Reilly, et al., 2013). The authors administered questionnaires and employed structured interview questions to develop a clear understanding of the prevalence of the disease among the population. A strong link was established between health behavior of the participants and their HIV status with the authors noting that unprotected sex was a major contributor towards HIV infection (Reilly, et al., 2013). Nevertheless, the authors noted a high prevalence of HIV among African American women, with most of the women either still in denial or unaware of their status, such that the reported that they were negative, yet they were positive. The authors note the importance of identifying the actual prevalence of the infection to the establishment of proper mechanisms that would ensure that the general lives of such persons are improved through proper education and social support.
Part C: Conclusion
is evident that women of color living with HIV face a series of challenges
throughout their daily lives, an aspect that calls for the development of
proper measures that would facilitate their stability. Societal view of HIV,
coupled with self-perception come to play among this population, affecting how
they view themselves as compared to those people without HIV. Nevertheless,
owing to other factors such as lack of knowledge, cultural factors, and
poverty, black an Indian women are left at a disadvantage in terms of influencing
their health behavior, such that they fail to understand the various factors
that affect their general health. For those who have knowledge about HIV,
poverty downplays them as the cost of accessing medical care and proper nutrition
is deemed too high for them. As such, it is important for all stakeholders,
including policy makers, government institutions, and NGOs, among others, to
ensure that they effectively play their role in establishing and implementing initiatives
through which women of color living with HIV can be empowered to transit into
life with HIV and to effectively overcome the various challenges that they
Dibb, B., & Kamalesh, T. (2012). Exploring positive adjustment in HIV positive African women living in the UK. AIDS Care, 24(2), 143-148.
Nyamathi, A. M., Sinha, S., Ganguly, K. K., William, R. R., Heravian, A., Ramakrishnan, P., . . . Rao, P. V. (2011). Challenges Experienced by Rural Women in India Living With AIDS and Implications for the Delivery of HIV/AIDS Care. Health Care for Women International, 32, 300–313.
Peltzer, J., Domian, E., & Teel, C. (2015). Living in the Everydayness of HIV Infection: Experiences of Young African-American Women. Research for Practice, 24(2), 111-118.
Reilly, K. H., Neaigus, A., Jenness, S. M., Hagan, H., Wendel, T., & Gelpí-Acosta, C. (2013). High HIV Prevalence Among Low-Income, Black Women in New York City with Self-Reported HIV Negative and Unknown Status. Journal of Women’s Health, 22(9), 745-754.