Security and Risk Management
Write a 1,750- to 2,450-word paper that summarizes and integrates the following major concepts of physical security when creating an overall organizational security plan:
Basic physical controls
External building security
Internal building security
Access control and protective systems
An estimated budget associated with your recommendations
Security and Risk Management
The effective management of risks plays a significant role in the elevation of an organization’s operational and profit efficiency. According to Fennelly (2015), security forms a critical part of the risk management. Therefore, the leadership and management of any organization must invest sufficiently in the promotion of security and safety. Such investment, as Garcia (2008) asserts, should include an effective physical protection system (PPS). The development of an effective PPS follows the identification of the possible security concerns, a deep analysis of the resources that require protection, and outlining the detection, delay, and response measures. The protection of valuable assets demands sufficient fencing that meets the basic physical control measures for delaying any possible intrusion. However, considering the ineffectiveness of delay alone, detection of intrusion and response measures are of great significant. Most importantly, effective security planning play an equally important role in enhancing the efficiency of the PPS. An extensive discussion of the critical physical security concepts is essential for a deeper understanding of the physical protection systems.
Basic Physical Controls
According to Garcia (2008), physical controls include the barriers that an organization plan to set up or develop for the prevention of security breaches resulting in the loss of organizational resources. The management and leadership must focus on the development of effective physical controls for countering the possible threats that intruders pose. The fundamental goal of the physical protection is controlling access into the organization and preventing disruption of activities, theft, or destruction of property by intruders. Additionally, Fennelly (2015) asserts that physical barriers, mainly arraigned in layers depending on the level of security defend assets, promote security and the safety of personnel. In the development of the security plan, the organization must determine areas that require the highest protection and design the layers to ensure efficient and maximum protection. The implementation of multiple physical controls reduces the possibility of a fruitful intrusion by ensuring that the failure of one layer does not necessarily guarantee access to information, assets or resources. Most importantly, the combination of people, procedures, and efficient devices in the protection control ensures efficacy in security management.
Sufficient analysis of threats, planning, and effective implementation of the security plan influences the efficiency of the physical barriers. Garcia (2008) posits that the risk management team must identify the possible risks and threats that the organization face on site to determine the most effective physical controls. The identification and analysis of the security risks allows the development and implementation of a most effective security plan. Such an analysis gives the team sufficient information on equipment and procedures that when applied would give maximum protection with considerable capital input. However, the adaptation of the system is of essence and thus testing is equally important. The integration of different devices and procedures offers the system greater efficiency in performing the role. Baker and Benny (2016) argue that a multi-layered system involving different devices and procedures requires higher skill and knowledge to by-pass. Additionally, they delay the intrusion enabling response and consequently the prevention of access to the facility, information, and resources.
The different layers of physical controls include fences, locks, alarms, and lights, and work together to offer an integrated security system. The authenticity and complexity of the locks and alarm systems are critical for the detection, prevention, delay of intrusion and alerting security personnel for response. Quality locks and alarm systems are important in improving the general security of an organization. They offer critical layers of protection in the perimeter for the general internal and external security to limit access to information and organizational assets by intruders.
Intelligent perimeter protection remains key in the promotion of organizational security. The protection plays a significant role in enhancing the concepts of deterring, denying intrusion, detecting, and delaying in security management. Perimeter protection is essential for protecting organizational infrastructure/assets from fraudulent behaviour of intruders. According to Fennelly (2015), the protection of the perimeter forms the first layer of the physical security concentric layers. Therefore, its reliability and efficiency in minimizing security risks and detecting, deterring, and delaying sabotages or intrusions is important in alleviating the cases. Some of the essential equipment for the development of an efficient perimeter protection system include fences, gates, doors, alarm systems, and lighting technologies among others. However, of greater importance is an effective and well-trained personnel. The integration of the different equipment into the perimeter protection system improves the efficiency of the layers of protection making the organization impenetrable by intruders. This boosts the safety and security of the organization reducing the risks of loss of assets, information, or the threats that the personnel may face due to poor protection.
According to (Garcia, Vulnerability assessment of physical protection systems, 2006), the different equipment used in the protection of perimeter are diverse and serve varying roles. For instance, there are different types of alarm systems for the protection of the perimeter. Alarms come integrated into door switches, window screens, and glass-break detectors. While these protect the perimeter others such as microwave and ultrasonic alarms and proximity and vibration detectors protect spaces and objects or specific equipment respectively. Apart from the alarms, gates, fences, and doors prevent or limit unauthorized entry or delay entrance in case of intrusion or break-ins. Moreover, the different lighting classes (artificial and natural) boost security by improving perimeter protection. The consideration of the different is essential for effective planning and implementation of the security plan.
External Building Security
The structural and architectural design of a building influences its external and internal security significantly. A building should reveal structural integrity and endurance towards possible attacks to minimize the risk of loss of property and decreased profit efficiency caused by less productivity. The external building security should be analysed excellently to ensure the organization faces minimal threat from burglary and theft. The different designs and integrity of the gates, doors, and windows is of essence in the process. All should have quality and authentic locks that curb unauthorized access to the building. For gates and doors, the presence of well-trained personnel and the assurance of padlock ability to withstand surreptitious techniques of attack respectively is important. The involvement of expert security personnel is necessary for advice on the issue. Therefore, the plan requires security experts with extensive knowledge on all levels of security. Additionally, for improved security, any unnecessary doors and windows should be closed permanently to minimize access. Further from the aforementioned, the use of alarm systems is critical for alerting the security personnel in cases of breach or notable intrusion.
The analysis of the alarm systems and the external lighting are important in the improvement of the building external security. The alarm systems, as discussed earlier, forms an essential part of the security system. The alarms prevent the unauthorised entry into the building by securing the gates, doors, windows, and space or the building’s external area. Using door and window alarms (such as glass-break and door switches/detectors), the security management team can prevent entrance into the building or access of the building’s external environment without permission. Additionally, alarms that detect waves and vibrations (such as ultrasonic, vibration, proximity, and microwave detectors) protect the external space and prevent close unauthorized close proximity to the building especially in the absentia of staff. Moreover, the lighting of the external environment of the building is essential for allowing security cameras higher functionality. Sufficient natural lighting or (where it lacks) artificial lighting are according to Garcia (2008), critical parameters for the effective functioning of the CCTV systems.
Sufficient investment in security personnel is essential for efficient external building security. The management should consider on setting enough funds for trained personnel to monitor entry to the building and security outside. For instance, security personnel at the gate is of critical importance in recording and checking people in. Additionally, the personnel is essential for maintain security in parking areas and other areas within the compound of the building.
Internal Building Security
The effectiveness of the security system is impacted majorly by the internal security. The assurance of efficient internal building security is, therefore, of great importance. According to Garcia (2008), there is a need for the evaluation of the surveillance systems in the building to determine their functionality and effectiveness. Therefore, a good security plan should consider not only how the surveillance equipment are positioned but also their effectiveness. Additionally, the plan should meet all policy requirements for emergencies, alarm systems, and access to different points within the building. The consideration of these requirements would make the implementation of the plan possible and operational. Further, internal security should ensure access control to various points within the organization. For instance, only authorised staff should have access to specific offices, critical storage areas, and safes. All visitors should have clearance of access to points beyond the certain areas in the building. Most importantly, there is a need for the analysis of different safes, vaults, locks, and devices that might be used to secure certain rooms, assets, or information. Also, considering the importance of sufficient lighting, the plan should focus on identifying the limitations and improve with instantaneous immediacy.
Access Control and Protective Systems
Controlled access to specific areas within a building is critical for the management of security and prevention of cases of loss of assets, misuse of information, and theft. A security plan must consider access control for better and effective security management. The implementation of monitoring systems is important for controlling access. The application of biometrics and other equipment for the management of access enhances security in an organization. However, these demand the implementation and effective management of databases and organizational records for the determination and recording of entry and exits. For instance, in an organization, fingerprint biometrics, eye-pattern, palm/hand, voice, and facial biometrics are credible biometrics that can be used to identify and record access of personnel to different areas of the building. Additionally, the organization should consider using photo-badges, card-readers, password-locks, and coded credential badges to identify staff in the building. Moreover, external access control can be achieved through surveillance, efficient alarm systems, motion sensors, and systems promoting life safety among others. Efficient lighting would come in handy in enhancing the effectiveness of the surveillance system for external access control.
An Estimated Budget Associated with these Recommendations
The security of an organization demands keen consideration. As such, there is a need for sufficient input in the department. The different concepts and recommendations outlined will require a significant amount to ensure full and effective implementation. However, it should be noted that these are estimates and can vary considerably in the course of implementation after factoring unforeseeable expenditures, differing installation fees, inflation, and the different prices of the various designs and models of the security equipment. A budget is estimated for a medium-security and medium-level organization.
|Lighting, alarm systems, locks, safes, vaults, and biometric systems, surveillance systems, and other control devices||$600 000|
|Secure doors, windows, and securing unused openings||$40000|
|Fences, gates, and other barriers||$100 000|
|Personnel and databases management||$2.094 million|
|Total Cost||$2.834 million|
The security management leadership will earn an average $150 000 per annum ($75 000 per person per year). While the personnel of 12 persons will earn $62 000 per year each ($744 000). The management databases will be allocated $1.2 million.
management is a key component of the risk management process for any
organization. The efficiency of the security system influences organizational
productivity, minimizes losses, and improves profit efficiency significantly.
The need for effective perimeter protection, internal and external building
security, access control and protective systems, and basic physical protection
in the improvement of the security management of an organization is undeniable.
The management must focus on the effective implementation of the
recommendations for the effectiveness in the management of security concerns. The
multi-layered protection system serves an important role in promoting security
and guaranteeing safety of assets, information, and staff. However, in the
implementation, the concepts of cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and quality
must be considered. The budget provided is an estimation of the possible amount
the organization might incur in the implementation. However, it is not entirely
accurate as unforeseeable expenses, different ranges of prices for different
equipment, installation fees, and inflation might influence the cost
Baker, P. R., & Benny, D. J. (2016). The Complete Guide to Physical Security. London: CRC Press.
Fennelly, L. (2015). Effective physical security. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Garcia, M. L. (2006). Vulnerability assessment of physical protection systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Garcia, M. L. (2008). Design and Evaluation of Physical Protection Systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.