Social Consequences of Social Neglect, Physical Abuse, and Verbal Abuse
Life Chances and Socialization: Social Consequences of Social Neglect, Physical Abuse, and Verbal Abuse
A written essay/narrative assignment will constitute 25% of the course grade (expectations, due date, and more detailed instructions will be provided in a separate handout). Please note the written assignment’s due date for your section:
Section 001, Monday Feb. 20;
Sections 002 & 008, Wednesday, Feb. 22;
Section 010, Fri., Feb. 24. Late essay/narrative assignments will be penalized 15% per day late (including weekends).
The narrative assignment should address the following research question by employing sociological theories, concepts, and research evidence (demonstrating the student’s ability to apply the sociological imagination to this topic): “What are the social consequences of physical and verbal abuse and social neglect for children/youths’ life chances and socialization”? Note that the student’s narrative should address two areas of social consequences: First, ‘life chances’ should be addressed following Max Weber, who defined this concept to include the person’s chances (opportunities) for educational attainment, health, material reward, and status mobility (preferably in the upward direction). “Opportunities in this sense refer to the extent to which one has access to resources, both tangible ones such as food, clothing and shelter, and intangible ones such as education and health care” (Wikipedia).
Secondly, how do abuse/neglect impact ‘socialization’, meaning the person’s basic social skills, competencies, abilities, and development of self? Students should explore the hypothesis that abuse/neglect adversely affects socialization. Consideration should also be given to whether abuse/neglect may have positive effects for socialization outcomes. The student’s consideration of the impacts of abuse/neglect on socialization (i.e., social skills, abilities and competencies) should also consider, as a subset of possible impacts of abuse/neglect on socialization, how sociologist Charles H. Cooley’s concept of ‘the looking glass self’ might apply to analysis of the social consequences of the child/youths’ experience of abuse/neglect. In other words, how does abuse/neglect affect the self and its development (i.e., ‘self concept’, sense of self, self-esteem, etc.), in addition to the development of social skills, abilities, and competencies?
To summarize: this narrative assignment should focus on these two identified areas:
1) assessment of the social consequences of abuse/neglect for ‘life chances’ and ‘socialization’ outcomes [including social skills and competencies and the development of the self (self concept, sense of self, self esteem)]. Soci 1125 Social Processes Essay Assignment
2 The essay narrative should contain the following elements in addressing these two foci: the essay narrative should have three recognizable features — a beginning, middle, and ending (i.e., an introduction where the objective of the essay is clearly and explicitly provided (please note that a brief descriptive phrase or title does not constitute an adequate or acceptable statement of essay purpose),. the main body of the essay where evidence is advanced in support of the student’s claims, proposals, and arguments concerning the social consequences of abuse/neglect, and a conclusion that draws the essay to a close by summarizing a body of ‘findings’ the student has unearthed in relation to the central research question.
The essay assignment should be written in clear, grammatical prose, based on logical argumentation and the advancement of relevant social research evidence that focuses on the two areas identified above (i.e., ‘life chances’ and ‘socialization’ impacts as indicated above).
Bear in mind that ‘abuse’ and ‘neglect’ refer to different patterns of interaction-based ‘mistreatment’ of the child/youth by adults (typically parents/guardians), within a family social context. In the case of ‘abuse’ (verbal and physical) the child/youth is subject to discernable mistreatment (the infliction of pain and distress), whereas various forms and degrees of social ‘neglect’ suggest lost opportunities for learning (about self and group) resulting in limits on the development of ‘social capital’ (improving the ability of the individual to easily navigate the social and cultural contexts of modern life), hindering the individual’s ability to socially adapt and adjust in order to achieve recognizable social success, etc. Whereas ‘abuse’ imposes psychological pain and distress on the victimized child/youth experiencing it, ‘neglect’ reflects patterned relationships reflecting an absence of effective parental guidance and inappropriate and/or dysfunctional parental role models. What does the research literature have to say about the social consequences of these two problematic kinds of interpersonal treatment?
Students should avoid adopting a ‘psychological’ focus (where the focus of analytical interest is the individual). The focus should be sociological, which means focusing on how groups and group life (forms of ‘collective organization’) affect the individual (where the focus of analysis is to address how ‘collective organization and action’ affect individual-level consequences.
To summarize again, in addressing ‘social consequences’ students should first explore how social abuse and neglect affect ‘life chances’ and social impacts children/youths experience as a result of abusive and neglectful treatment by parents and adult caregivers. Do abused and neglected children/youths experience diminished ‘life chances’ (meaning reduced opportunities to develop socially productive, pro-social abilities and competencies)?
How do children/youths who are abused/neglected do in their schooling compared to young people who grow up without the experience of abuse/neglect?
What patterns of substance abuse do abused/neglected children/youths experience?
What is the connection between abuse/neglect and substance abuse? (i.e., why do youths develop these patterns of substance abuse as a consequence of their experienced abuse/neglect.?) The second focus of the essay is the assessment of how abuse/neglect affects the child/youths’ socialization (including a consideration of learning and skill/competency development and the developing ‘sense of self’, including an assessment of the application of Cooley’s ‘looking glass self’ theory to the social circumstances of abuse/neglect.
Students’ written assignments will be evaluated in terms of their demonstrated ability to apply the sociological imagination and an ability to apply critical thinking in using the research-based evidence (from scholarly sources) to make their case in answering the assignment question. Soci 1125 Social Processes Essay Assignment 3
Students submitting essays that focus on psychological variables or essays submitted that are not clearly sociological are not acceptable and will not receive a passing mark for their written assignment. If you have any questions as to whether this topic and your approach to developing it are properly ‘sociological’ in character, then consult with the instructor before you proceed with your research and writing efforts. The length of this paper is 1500-2000 words (6-8 pages) of ‘body text’ in standard university/college format: typewritten, 1” margins (top/bottom; left/right), 12 point type font, double-spacing, and separate pages for bibliography, appendices, and title page. The title page must contain the following information: essay title, course identification (including course name/number/section number), instructor’s name, student’s name, and date of submission. Failure to comply with these essay guidelines will result in a 2% deduction for each essay guideline violation. Students must use the APA style guide for the term essay written for this course (for more information on style guides, see the Douglas College Library webpage – click on Library at the bottom of the main webpage under Quicklinks to access Citation and Style Guides including the APA Style Guide.
Life Chances and Socialization: Social Consequences of Social Neglect, Physical Abuse, and Verbal Abuse
Social processes within a child are imperative for the achievement of life chances as well as socialization dynamics. In his theoretical approach to lives of individuals, Max Weber defines “life chances” as hypothesis where the opportunities faced by individuals need to be improved in his or her life (Swedberg & Agevall, 2016). Alternatively, socialization refers to a concept where the lifelong processes in interaction with the customs, norms, values and ideologies provide one with skills and habits essential for taking part within their society. This paper transcends a discussion of the social consequences of physical abuse, verbal abuse and social neglect for youths/children’s socialization and life chances.
Part 1: Life Chances
Research suggests that children who experience physical abuse, verbal abuse, and social neglect tend to face negativities regarding accomplishing ‘life chances”. In this case life, chances refer to the attainment of essential lifelong achievement perceived by the contemporary human being. These “life chances” include opportunities for educational proficiency, health, improving in status, and material rewards. Arguably, these social processes that individuals take part in are key players in determining the result of the social development of an individual.
- Physical Abuse and Life Chances
Popkin et al. (2010) write that adolescent females are usually at a high risk of facing physical abuse; which range from sexual assault to harassment at home or in school. Apparently, families that move away from areas where the children suffer physical abuse such as rape have an excellent chance at creating a life for themselves (Popkin et al., 2010). According to Clark et al. (2010), persistent physical abuse to children considerably affects the child’s early adulthood psychology.
In the case of sexual abuse, Malloy et al. (2016) establish that the recantation of sexual abuse by an affected child is a difficult process but is constructive in providing a better opportunity to accomplish desired life chances. The abuse that entails force sexual actions often affects the victim’s future life. Malloy et al. (2016) deduce that sexual abuse among young children often causes erratic life choices, shame, and stigma from other children who do not understand. Physical abuse has often been a doorway to self-hatred as well as substance abuse, such as alcohol (Freisthler & Maguire-Jack, 2015).
- Verbal Abuse and Life Chances (Give examples from research)
Interviewing thirty high school students in the Philippines, Loh et al. (2011) found that verbal abuse presented itself in the form of shaming, blaming, threats to cause harm, name calling, swearing at children, negatively speaking of their future, making an iniquitous comparison and overstating faults. The emotional and psychological setting of the student is therefore backtracked due to the lack of a positive outlook. Verbal abuse in the Philippines by parents is a frequent occurrence, leading to a group of teenagers wallowing in bitterness (Loh et al. 2011).
According to Malloy et al. (2016), children who grow up in a home where they received verbal abuse day in day out, find alternative ways to cope and survive. These children will then find their means of finding satisfaction in daily life by achieving some of their goals and desires (Molnar et al., 2016). Rising above the constant voices of criticism and shaming in the mind of a child is often a difficult struggle that needs psychological expertise and intervention (Loh et al., 2011).
- Social neglect and Life Chances (Give examples from research)
In a study by Gratz et al. (2009), childhood neglect and maltreatment is observed to possess a direct correlation with perpetrated abuse to an intimate partner. Examining three hundred and forty-one undergraduate students, Gratz et al. (2009) found that maltreatment during younger ages of development caused a lack of proper regulation of emotions in early stages of adulthood, deducing this from experiences and patterns observed from the students. This was more prevalent among the males, yet among females not as significant. This means that living up to the norm of a happy marriage is disregarded by marital abuse and fear.
Trauma among neglected children often renders the children’s emotional stability obsolete. In the case of homeless children living on the streets, Music (2011) writes that social neglect makes the children less altruistic. This way, the child does not care about their livelihood or others. Therefore, no necessity is found in achieving life chances, since the issue of survival comes first. Social neglect reduces opportunities for achieving any accomplishments or milestones, such as graduating, getting married, because, in a highly competitive society, the well-advantaged regarding emotional stability and socialization surely have more chances at accomplishing life’s chances.
- Part 2: Socialization
- Physical Abuse and Socialization
Currie& SpatzWidom (2010) explicitly state that physical abuse during early stages of childhood easily translates to violent behavior, which in turn puts a strain on social relationships. In the case of childhood sexual abuse, Clarke et al. (2010) further explain that reactions that follow persistent physical abuse are for self-shielding. Different children use different ways to cope, such as silence, retracting to oneself, advocacy in the society as well as increased self-care (Singh et al., 2010). Secondly, physical abuse may cause a child to lose interest in other people as well as not care much about relationships (Music, 2011).
The shame adjoined to physical abuse is a stopping block to a child’s enjoyment of social relationships (Molnar et al., 2016). With the widespread internet, sexual abuse causes shame when the child is publicly shamed and bullied by classmates and friends. A joyful child soon turns to moody, angry and paranoid. The social imbalance created due to a lack of trust then created deep psycho-social issues in the child, passing through to adulthood.
- Verbal Abuse and Socialization
Hurtful words come in all sorts of ways. In the case of bullying, Wolke & Lereya (2015) explain that children who are frequently bullied; for example, receiving a name that is consistent to one’s physical deformity, face difficulties in comfortable social interactions. This, in some, may translate to feelings of self-hate, lack of self-appreciation, abridged adjustment into grown-up roles such as establishing satisfactory lasting relationships (Wolke & Lereya, 2015). Adapting into work as well as achieving economic independence becomes difficult due to emotional dysregulation in the case of persistent sexual and physical abuse (Currie & SpatzWidom, 2010). Parental verbal abuse also affects the child’s self-esteem and feelings of self-worth. Substance abuse such as alcohol may be seen to provide a quick escape from reality as well as a form of defiance (Freisthler & Maguire-Jack, 2015).
- Social Neglect and socialization
To moderate the connection between social neglect and the succeeding outcomes, Sperry & Widom (2013) interviewed adults who had substantial cases of childhood neglect and find that support from peers as well as the inner sense of acceptance into the community was considered averagely at the age of thirty-nine and a half and outcomes such as depression, substance use, averagely at forty-one years. The lack of social support in middle life actively detected indicates that the individual may have retracted into oneself thereby putting off any friend with the sense to intervene. Sperry & Widom (2013) view the presence of a social support network as one of the best moderators of previous experiences of neglect and maltreatment. Focusing on stigma, this type of social neglectinterrupts many social domains such as resources and relationships (Hatzenbuehler et al., 2013). Stigma presents intensely complicated situations and coping mechanisms for the victims.
Research reveals that neglect of children and adolescents is a factor that promotes poor physical and cognitive development. The effects of abuse and neglect include deteriorating school performance and lack of co-curricular activities, antisocial behavior, violent tendencies, lack of drive, low self-esteem and confidence, feelings of worthlessness, social advocacy and a spirit of self-sufficiency. According to Chapple & Vaske (2010), the developmental theory finds that unpleasant social frameworks repeatedly worsen the outcomes of physical abuse. It goes without saying as to the physical harm that can easily be induced by physical abuse. Use of children for sex also implants deep scars that affect the psychopathological system of the victim. In addition to the risk of unwanted pregnancies and diseases, sexual abuse crushes self-esteem in growing teenagers and also leads to substance use. At this point, the hopelessness within the victim does not even allow the individual to achieve life chances.
Verbal abuse from parents or guardians has been found to increase dissociation in children. As such, it implies that young adolescents may develop feelings of low self-worth since the self-esteem is crushed as the child listens to the hurtful words strategically released. Verbal abuse, which can easily be interpreted as hurtful words may lead to feelings of hate, revenge, and forlornness. This negativity then reflects in the victim’s academic performance as well as daily living. It is important to note that, the gap between verbal abuse and accomplishing life chances is filled with days of self-doubt, substance abuse among other children, low self-esteem, and lack of motivation or enthusiasm and among few children, days spent harnessing all the power within themselves in order to remain positive and optimistic about the future (Music, 2011).
Currie & SpatzWidom (2010) followed up on incidents of childhood neglect authenticated by courts to adulthood, specifically an average age of forty-one. Results indicated that these individuals who had gone through neglect had lower levels of education, lack of culture, unemployment and dysfunctional relationships. This case means that neglected children have a petite chance of accurately accomplishing the normal societal goal expectations, such as school and career, as Currie & SpatzWidom (2010) indicate. Today, there are institutions whose main aim is to assist neglected children in achieving psycho-social balance to create a stable life with friends and take on life chances. These results clearly suggest that there is a direct relationship between abuse and a child’s achievement, growth, development and social well-being.
Ill-treatment and neglect strongly affect all aspects of socialization. Physical abuse not only physically harms a child’s body but also transforms the psycho-social setting of the child. In turn, it reduces the chances of the child to compete steadily with other well-advantaged children, and in this light, falls behind in school, relationships, and in taking life chances. Neglect of children also affects the cognitive and physical development of the victims. Verbal abuse, on the other hand, crushes a child’s spirit, lowering his self-esteem and self-worth. Victims of social neglect often disregard socialization and often retracted into silence and bitterness. Abuse has destructive consequences to the victim’s social life. The feelings of lack of acceptance, low self-esteem are outcomes of persistent child abuse. Despite this, some children are able to rise above the negative environment and verbal abuse to accomplish milestones in life chances. Despite this, these adults still undergo difficult in emotional as well as social stability.
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Clark, C., Caldwell, T., Power, C., & Stansfeld, S. A. (2010). Does the influence of childhood adversity on psychopathology persist across the life course? A 45-year prospective epidemiologic study. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(5), 385-394.
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Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American journal of public health, 103(5), 813-821.
Loh, J., Calleja, F., & Restubog, S. L. D. (2011). Words That Hurt: A Qualitative Study of s Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines. Journal of interpersonal violence, 26(11), 2244-2263
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