Review and Selection of Standardized Tests
In Unit 1, you read “The Concerns of the Profession” on pages 66–68 of your Psychological Testing and Assessment text as well as the Code. While the Code addresses the roles of test developers and test users separately, you will be following the standards for test users and, specifically, the section on selecting tests (refer page 5). There are nine elements to consider when selecting a test. You will focus on the first four of these elements for this assignment.
In your paper:
- Identify a test category that is relevant to your academic and professional career goals. The List of Tests by Type document identifies the 10 categories you may choose from. They include (1) intelligence/cognitive abilities, (2) achievement/aptitude, (3) personality, (4) behavior, (5) adaptive behavior, (6) neuropsychological, (7) career/business/organization, (8) autism, (9) depression, and (10) preschool.
- Select three tests from a single category using the List of Tests by Type document. Note: If you have an interest in a particular test that is not on this list, then you may, as an option, submit a request to your instructor to include it in your first assignment with two other tests on the list in the same category. Your instructor will review it and determine if you may proceed with including that test in your assignment or recommend that you select three tests from the list.)
- Compare and contrast
these three tests according to the Code’s first four elements.
- Access the Capella library and conduct a search. Use the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) database from Buros to locate and read a review for each test.
- Visit the publishers’ Web site for each test to obtain additional information.
- Return to the Capella library to choose a database, for example, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ERIC (education research). Search for journal articles that are relevant to the four elements and each test. (An optional worksheet is provided to you in the resources to facilitate your research and literature review.)
**Organize your paper using the following headings (please use these headings):
- Title page (required).
- Abstract (optional).
- Identify your particular area of specialization and career goals, and the three tests you will research and review.
- Describe how your area and goals are impacted by the category of the tests you identified.
- Discuss how your knowledge of the selected test and category will assist you with your area of specialization and professional goals.
- Element 1. “Define the purpose for testing, the content and skills to be tested, and the intended test takers” (Code, 2004, p. 6, See #1). Describe your findings for all three tests citing references. Use this section to introduce each test and report on each of the three elements: purpose, content and skills, and intended test takers.
- Element 2. Describe “the appropriateness of test content, skills tested, and content coverage for the intended purpose of testing” (Code, 2004, p. 6, See #2). Describe your findings for each test citing references. Use this section to report on unique comments or research that evaluate any aspects of the appropriateness of each test. There may be a wide range of facets considering appropriateness that may be unique to each particular test under consideration.
- Element 3. Describe “materials provided by test developers and select tests for which clear, accurate, and complete information is provided” (Code, 2004, p. 6. See #3). Describe your findings for each test, citing references. Use this section to describe either reviews or your evaluation of the materials described in the sources you locate for each test under consideration.
- Element 4. “Select tests through a process that includes persons with appropriate knowledge, skills, and training” (Code, 2004, p. 6. See #4). Include specific publisher information about test-user qualification (for example, Level A, B, or C; or other classification). Describe your findings for each test, citing references.
- Compare and contrast.
- Compare and contrast the three tests based on these four elements (that is, 1–4).
- Decide which test will be the focus of your course project, based on your evaluation of the three tests. Explain your choice. All future assignments will be focused only on this one test that you determine here.
- References (required, use current APA format and style).
You may use the Optional Research Worksheet given in the resources to complete this assignment.
Your paper should meet the following requirements:
- References: A minimum of nine references are required
for this assignment. These resources may include all of the reference sources
identified in your Psychological Testing and Assessment text
(pages 33–36), but must include:
- Three Buros MMY test reviews (one for each test).
- Three test publisher Web sites (one for each test).
- Three journal articles (one for each test).
- Length of paper: A minimum of five pages of content, not including the title page or references (an abstract is not required).
- APA format: Current APA format and style is required throughout. Be sure to use correct format and style for each respective type of reference, for example, Web site versus journal).
Reference Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (2004). Code of fair testing practices in education. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/programs/testing/fair-testing
Review and Selection of Standardized Tests.
Standardized tests refer to a form of test administered to for which procedures have been developed to guarantee consistency in supervision and scoring across all testing scenarios. As a school psychologist, it is imperative to gain adequate knowledge when handling students in a given class. Standardized tests are profoundly used in school to know the academic abilities of students. This paper transcends a review of three standardized tests that are commonly employed in my field of study.
To begin with, a standardized test is structured in such a way that the contents within the tests are well written and have passed clarity tests, conditions of administering and scoring are well-established, and tables of norms are delivered within the test. The advantages of standard tests supersede its disadvantages. Furthermore, it restricts a test-taker to a given time limit; therefore, they cannot accurately reflect the salient characteristics of children who are much slower, more thoughtful or more unhurried. Consequently, scoring system in standardized tests does not reflect the uniqueness of experiences of different types of persons. As a school psychologist, I decided on reviewing three standardized tests regarding preschool. These include the Boehm Test for Basic Concepts –II Preschool version, Brigance Screens (Brigance Early Preschool Screen for ages three and four and Brigance K & I for Kindergarten and first grade), and the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS)
Review of the Boehm Test for Basic Concepts-III Preschool Version
As a school psychologist, it is imperative to understand the cognitive skills that students or pupils possess. Additionally, in alignment with my goals and vision to be able to understand the way individuals behave, especially those I interact with every day, I settled on this test as one of the criteria for preschool, Boehm Test for Basic Concepts –II Preschool version. The Boehm Test for Basic Concepts –II Preschool version was postulated by Anne. E. Boehm under the Psychological Corporation between 1984 and 1986 (Boehm, 2001). This test is a form of criterion-referenced evaluation. Typically, the test takes around 20 to 30 minutes for administration. Furthermore as per the price index as at 2003, it costs $134 for a full kit that includes a picture book, 35 individual record forms, a class record as well as manual. The scoring system is based percentiles by six-month age assortment.
The Boehm Test for Basic Concepts –II Preschool version is designed for measuring preschool children’s knowledge of 26 basic relational concepts that are considered necessary for academic achievement in the starting years of school. The children who take this test range from ages 3.0 to 5-11 years. In summary, the test encompasses an evaluation of concepts such as space (top and next), quantity (few and some), time (after and never), and other concepts such as differences and matches between objects/persons. The BTBC-PV test is often administered individually where the subject has to respond to items by pointing out pictures in place of recordings with writings. Additionally, the test has two parallel forms where each form has two concepts tested twice to determine the ability of the child to understand the given concepts. Lastly, test materials in this type of standardized test are thought-provoking and eye-catching enough to hold the attention of the subject.
Strengths of BTBC-III-PV
Reviewers have established some groundbreaking strength in regards to BTBC-III-PV test. To begin with, according to Buros Center for Testing (2016), the BTBC-III-PV test manual is efficiently organized, clear and easy to read. Furthermore, its method of administration is quicker and easier through the facilitation of the easel presentation and child-directing responses. Also, according to Spies and Barbara (2005), it is evident that children are often fascinated by colorful materials. Hence, the test is rendered favorable to children at the specified age due to its colorful, provocative content. Additionally, Padula (1988) enumerates the test construction, reliability, use and validity and rates BTBC-III-PV test as a test where the scoring system is forthright. Thus, it obliges the minimal administrator manipulation of the test data to acquire t-scores and percentiles. Through thorough research and analysis, I conclude that the BTBC-II-PV test exhibits the test- retest reliability as each concept is tested twice to determine the child’s understanding of the test’s context. Last but not least, the BTBC-III-PV test is beneficial to an educator regarding tracking the progress of a student and providing a road map for intervention and developing IEP objectives as well as contributing to documentation related to local and state teaching standards.
Limitations of BTBC-III-PV
According to some test reviewers on Buros, the BTBC-III-PV test is disadvantageous in some ways. First, Padula (1988) suggest that the only delivers the information deemed necessary in screening for school readiness as the expressive utilization of concepts in not measured. Also, Spies and Barbara (2005) outlines that test directions and scoring requires a critical subjective judgment on the part of the administrator as the manual directs the administrator to discontinue the assessment in the case of failure in repeating an item, elimination of a distractor, a learning strategy or giving the response.
Review of the Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised
This is a skill assessment termed as a cognitive screener postulated by Albert Brigance between 1978 and 1991. The test approximately costs only $124 per manual with assessments and $19.90 for each record book (Brigance, 2005). As a school psychologist, I am focussed on improving the cognitive skills of students hence this test is a relevant tool in assessing my students. The main purpose of this test is to evaluate and track the developmental skills of children ranging for birth years to seven years in the 11 broad skill areas encompassed in motor skills, self-help skills, general language, socio-emotional development, readiness and so on. In summary, the use of patent interview, observations, child performance activities, conversations and teacher interview are typically based on the core competencies being tested and the approximate developmental age at which mastery is attained.The test typically does not have a time limit. The scores in a Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised test entails that each skill necessary is regarded as distinct and that scores associated with a skill sub-area do not accumulate.
Strengths of The Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised
According to Buros test reviewers, the test evaluates a broad area of skills that constitutes a wider cross-section of behaviors and expertise that are associated with early childhood development (Spies R. A., 2007). Additionally, (Helfeldt, 1984) suggests that The Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised test requires little specialized training to run the test by an administrator. He emphasizes that the test has a built-in examiner flexibility as the inspector decides on a given core competencies from the 11 necessary skills. Lastly, this test is broader, and it helps us as a school psychologist to understand the ability of a student in undertaking school activities.
Limitations of the Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised Test
Several test reviewers have critiqued the Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised test as they are not useful for either pre-testing or post-testing as there is no cumulative score associated with the skill area or sub-area. Furthermore, (Spies R. A., 2007) suggests that the test requires preference or discretion on the part of the administrator to determine when a satisfactory number of questions have been answered to justify a skill area or sub-section.
Review of Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS)
The Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) is a full battery assessment postulated by Alan Kaufman and Nadeen Kaufman, published in 1993 by the American Guidance Service. The full kit costs approximately $223 for a full kit having 25 record booklets, a manual and presentation easel. The test-taking duration is about 15-25 minutes for the subject to complete. The primary objective of this test is to measure the receptive and the expressive vocabulary (language skills), pre-academic skills and enunciation skills of children at kindergarten and preschool of the age of 6-11 years and 3-0 years respectively. In summary, the test consists of three subsets: vocabulary, enunciation surveys, numbers-letters, and words.
Strengths of the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS)
Most of the test reviewers suggest that the test provides a manual that is clear with complete instructions for administration as well as formulating raw score sum-ups (Conoley, Impara, & Murphy, 1995). Additionally, (Kass, 1999) asserts that the manual is suitable for professionals who interact with young children since it is helpful if the administrator is knowledgeable regarding steps to engage children with more challenging assessment behaviors. Lastly, K-SEALS correlate well with the learning scores of the subject’s ability.
Limitations of K-SEALS
According to Buros Center for Testing, it reviews the test negatively as most of the test reviewers expressed an adamant concern in the interpretation of test scores of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as they recommend the use of overall composite score. Additionally, Kass (1999) felt that it is indistinct as to whether K-SEALS test is used as a screening test or a diagnostic measure. Furthermore, the computations of the confidence levels and standards scores are complex.
In my analysis, as
a school psychologist focused on understanding behavior and fostering academic
excellence. The best-standardized test that is clearer and straightforward is
the Basic Concepts –III Preschool version. First, the test is cost-effective on
its subject as compared to the other two test. Secondly, the test does not
entail manipulation by the examiner, and it is a good indicator of assessing
readiness skills among children in their early academic years.
Boehm, A. E. (2001). Boehm Test of Basic Concepts—3 Preschool. San Antonio, United States of America: Pearson Publisher.
Brigance, A. (2005). The Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development – Revised. North Billerica, MA, United States of America: Curriculum Associates, Inc.
Buros Center For Testing. (2016). Boehm Test of Basic Concepts—3 Preschool. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from Buros Center For Testing: https://marketplace.unl.edu/buros/boehm-test-of-basic-concepts-3-preschool.html
Conoley, J. C., Impara, J. C., & Murphy, L. L. (1995). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Helfeldt, J. P. (1984). Test Review The Brigance K&1 Screen for Kindergarten and First Grade. Reading Teacher, 37(9), 820-824.
Kass, C. E. (1999). Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS. Diagnostique, 24(1-4), 135-44.
Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1993). Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills. San Antonio, TX: Pearson Publishers.
Padula, J. (1988, January 1). Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised. Review. Psychological Test Bulletin, 1(2), 27-30.
Spies, R. A. (Ed.). (2007). The seventeenth mental measurements yearbook. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Spies, R. A., & Barbara, S. P. (2005). The sixteenth mental measurement yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurement.