Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management
Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management and Its Effect On Student Achievement
College OF Doctoral Studies
Dear Teachers: My name is Stacy Madison and I am a fellow educator and a doctoral student with Grand Canyon University. I would like to invite you to participate in my research for a study which is titled “Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management and Its Effect On Student Achievement.
Your participation is strictly voluntary and you may discontinue the survey at any time.
You have been selected because you are a certified, full-time teacher in Atlanta Public Schools. Your participation is needed to participate in a survey on teachers and their self-efficacy.
The survey should not take more than 15 minutes to complete. The information that you provide will be kept strictly confidential. There will be no use of names, schools and or districts revealed in the study.
There are no personal benefits to you for being in this study. Participation is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating in this study. Should you withdraw, your data will be eliminated from the study and will be destroyed. There is no monetary payment for participating in this study. If you would like to know more information about this study, an information letter can be obtained by sending me an email. If you decide to participate after reading this letter, you will be e-mailed a link to the survey.
Please complete the survey in its entirety and hit submit for your answers to be included in the data. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me directly at [email protected] or by phone 404 578 8490
Thanks for your support in assisting with the research
Stacy J. Madison-Doctoral Student
Grand Canyon University
Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management and Its Effect On Student Achievement
The classroom teacher has a key role in managing the classroom, a fact that is necessary for efficient teaching and learning during the interactions between the teacher and student (Burkett, 2011). As such, the management of the classroom has been subject to contention between teachers and other experts in the field of education and learning from as early as the 1900’s (deJong, 2014; Hicks, 2012; Koomen, 2016). However, a common ground among all the contenders is that active management of classrooms is necessary in order for students to excel in their studies classroom (O’Neill, 2011; Sadik, 2015; Smitta, 2012). The works of Neil, Sadik and Smitta highlight that there has recently been an increase in the number of studies examining efficiency of teachers in relation with their management skills. However, a gap exists within the literature as it neglects the correlation of teacher efficiency and management skills to academic achievement of the students learning form them in the social studies((Maguire, 2011), (Pierre, 2015)). The establishment of the best or optimum teaching practices and routines is necessary in order to enhance efficiency of the learning process. This can be established by identifying all combination of factors that correlate to the maximum efficiency of teachers, management of classrooms and increased performance by students in terms of improvement and achievement.
Self-efficacy refers to the belief in oneself and their capabilities to execute and meet the set objectives (Bandura, 1997). This theory by Bandura was widely accepted due to its application in prediction of human behavior, emotion and actions. Teacher efficacy refers to a trainer’s judgment regarding his ability to meet objectives of engaging students, including the challenged and unmotivated ones (Kamau, 2015). As such, self-efficacy embraces the belief that positive behavior from teachers encourages positive learning outcome for the students (Aloe, 2014). The issue of teacher efficacy has been widely explored and the effect it has on the students, since early 1900’s (Koomen, 2016). Current research shows that confident teachers who believe in themselves are more capable of managing their classroom, and therefore student off-task behavior is reduced (Chambers, 2005, DeLoreto, 2012; Lampton-Holmes, 2014; Lentfer, 2015; Ying, 2012). However, current research has been instrumental in pointing out the unexplored correlation between teacher efficacy and classroom management and the resultant effect on academic achievement in the social studies classroom (Maguire, 2011; Mohamadi, 2012; Pierre, 2015).
Theoretical Foundation/ Conceptual Framework
The theoretical foundation for this research is based on Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the belief that a positive teacher behavior can have positive outcomes for students (Aloe, 2014). Bandura (1997) defined self-efficacy as, “beliefs in one’s capacity to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainment” (p. 3). Bandura’s theory was chosen as the theoretical foundation because it assists with predicting human behavior and influences human emotions and actions (Bandura, 1994). Teachers who are confident and positive in their beliefs of their students are more efficacious in their dealing with their students and managing the classroom (Smitta, 2012), furthermore, teachers who have high levels of efficacy are perceived as having better classroom management skills (Dicke, 2014). Bandura’s theory believes that when teachers believe in themselves they tend to work to create classroom environments that students are more inclined to work in (Aloe, 2014). Bandura’s (1977) theory states that “teacher efficacy is a type of self-efficacy” and “the outcomes of cognitive process in which people construct beliefs about their capacity to perform at a given level of competence” (p. 480).
Review of the Literature
Literature research on the best practices of teacher self-efficacy and if there is any correlations between the teachers’ classroom management skills and student academic success in Social Studies. The literature review will focus on classroom management, teacher self-efficacy and its effect on student achievement in social studies.
Classroom management. Classroom management is the ability for teachers to control the classroom, by having rules, regulations and procedures for students to follow so that learning can take place (Sivri, 2015). Classroom management is the teachers’ ability to be proactive, organized and to have a plan in place for all procedural processes in the classroom (Sivri, 2015). Students tend to misbehave in school for many reasons, namely because of learning disorders, boredom or a lack of social competence (Jackson, 2016; Jones, 2015). Jackson (2016) stated that misbehavior in schools could take forms of “blurting out, throwing objects, doodling, crawling on the floor, laughing, screaming” (p. 2).
Teacher self-efficacy. There is literature to formulate correlational studies on teacher self-efficacy in elementary schools (Bullock, 2015; Putnam, 2012) and at the high school level (Shoulders, 2015) but there is not significant research to date to show any correlational studies of self-efficacy and classroom management at the middle school level (deJong, 2014; O’Neill, 2011; Putnam, 2013). Therefore, this quantitative correlational study will investigate the association between the self-Teacher self-efficacy is the level of confidence that teachers have that they ultimately believe will assist them with completing tasks, they believe that they can achieve goals (Kamau, 2015). The efficaciousness of the teacher is the behavior that they display in the classroom, their efforts, their goals (Kamau, 2015). Research shows that the higher the efficacy of the teacher the higher the dedication and engagement of the teacher (Skaalvik, 2014). Jones (2015) defined teacher self-efficacy as teachers believing in themselves to facilitate learning and have an impact on students who may otherwise be unmotivated. Tschannen-Moran (2001). Literature has shown that the number of years’ teachers teach, can be a factor in efficacy of the teacher (Fives, 2010) and the grade level taught is also a factor in the efficaciousness of teachers.
Student achievement. Students who do well and are successful in school attribute much of their success to teachers who they can rely on and who they trust (Tschannen-Moran, 2013). Student achievement can also be linked to feelings of belonging and acceptance by faculty and staff at their perspective school (Tschannen-Moran, 2013). Classroom management is the ability of the teacher to control the classroom with rules, regulations and procedures (Sivri, 2015). Students who are in classrooms that are pleasant environments and function with are functioning and supportive tend to learn better and research suggests (Fernandes, 2011).
Abundant research exists regarding the issue of teacher efficacy and its role in the achievement of students. However, there exists unanswered questions. It is not known whether there is a correlation between teacher efficacy and classroom management and the resulting results from the students. The magnitude of the extent to which this correlation affects the resultant output from students is also unknown. Classroom management has always been a controversial issue because it can make or break the spirit of teachers and their students in the classroom. For instance, classrooms with fair to poor classroom management techniques seems to suffer with unprepared, unsupervised, unscholarly like behavior from students and teachers alike (O’Neill, 2011, Smitta, 2012). This study will gather quantitative data from teachers on their self-efficacy and determine if any correlation exists with classroom management and student achievement.
The research addresses the major question of whether there exists correlation between teacher efficacy, classroom management and student achievement. . The predictor variable will be classroom management and the criterion variable will be student achievement.
R1 Is there a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management and its effect on student achievement in social studies?
H1: There is not a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management and its effect on student achievement in social studies.
H01: There is a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management and student achievement.
R2: Is there a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management and student achievement at the middle school level?
H1: There is not a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management on student achievement at the middle school level!
H2: There is a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management on student achievement at the middle school level!
Rationale for the methodology
This study will use a quantitative approach to establish if there is a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management and its effect on student achievement in social studies. The rationale for utilizing this methodology is the usefulness of the method in deducting and determining teacher self-efficacy and classroom management (Coghlan, 2014). This study intends to prove or disprove the correlational of teacher self-efficacy and classroom management.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant in that it will be able to present quantitative data that would link the self-efficaciousness of teachers and classroom management in the classroom. In an era of teacher accountability, student misbehavior, constant discipline issues, schools will benefit from this research. The research from this study can aid districts, superintendents, faculty staff and, teachers to implement training and professional development that would assist teachers in dealing with student behavior.
Rationale for the methodology
A quantitative study will attend to this study and the research design for the dissertation. A quantitative research is best used for this research because correlations studies show associations of relationships between variables (Coghlan, 2014; Salkind, 2010). Correlational research designs attempt to determine the extent of a relationship between two or more variables. The nature of the research design for this correlational research will be to seek out the efficaciousness of teachers and its effect on classroom management.
Nature of the Research Design for the Study
This study will use a quantitative approach to establish if there is a correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management and its effect on student achievement in social studies. The rationale for utilizing this methodology is it is the only useful method in determining teacher self-efficacy and classroom management (Coghlan, 2014). This study intends to prove or disprove the correlational of teacher self-efficacy and classroom management.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this correlational quantitative study is to seek if a relationship exists between teachers’ self-efficacy and their classroom management styles. This is because the relationship between the two has not been explored. The target population will be middle school teachers in a large urban school district in Georgia. The variables in this study will be self-efficacy and classroom management. It is not known how and or what degree if there is a relationship between teacher self-efficacy and their classroom management style and if it affects student achievement in a social studies class.
Teacher self-efficacy will be measured using the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk, 2001). A demographic questionnaire will be used to determine, gender and other characteristics to ensure the results are not biased. The survey scale provides questions for teachers to gauge their efficacy inside the classroom. The student achievement will be measured by scores from the end of year tests such as the Georgia Milestone or end of year tests given at the end of the school year, to help the teachers in gauging the level of efficacy.
Data Collection Procedures
The researcher will obtain IRB approval to conduct research and then the collection of data will take place from the results of the TSES survey conducted on the middle school social studies teachers in a large urban school district in Georgia. These middle schools have approximately 950 teachers, of which approximately 210 are social studies. Data will be collected from the teachers of these schools who will respond to the TSES (Teacher Self-Efficacy Survey) which was developed by (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk, 2001). For this purpose, this study’s design will seek to study any relationships between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management. The researcher will then collect test scores received from the end of school year tests.
Data Analysis Procedure
A correlational quantitative design will be used to determine if there is a statistically correlation between teacher self-efficacy and classroom management. The data will be collected after the middle school teachers complete an online survey of the TSES instrument. The TSES instrument can be correlated into three parts: student engagement, efficacy in instructional practices and classroom management (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk, 2001). The classroom management portion of the TSES will be highlighted and analyzed. This will determine if teachers with more self-efficaciousness in their classroom management have a correlation with student achievement in social studies.
researcher does not see any potential ethical concerns. The researcher will use
an online survey link that will be included in the initial email sent out to
teachers in the school district. The interactions with researcher and teachers
will be minimal at best. The survey will not ask for any identifiable personal
information from the responders but make blanket questions such as years
taught, grade taught, subject taught, etc. The survey will utilize all
standards set forth by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) before proceeding
into any research or ultimate data collection.
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