Theory-Based Types of Assessment for this Course and Value
I. Theory-Based Paper
|Selection of topic and Introduction:||10 points|
|Literature Review:||10 points|
|Final paper:||60 points|
This assignment is the final paper of your project for this course. Taking instructor feedback given to you from the Module Four assignment, you are to incorporate and revise your work to complete the final project.
General Outline for the final paper and other important information:
For this final assignment, you will select your own topic
Ask yourself the following questions to help you generate topic ideas:
· Do you have a strong opinion on a current social or political controversy that relates to victims and the criminal justice system in America?
· Did you read or see a news story related to a victim or victims that has interested you?
· Do you have a personal issue, problem or interest that you would like to know more about?
· Is there an aspect of our class that you would like to learn more about?
I. Examples of Research Topics (You may select other topic related to
Criminology, Victimology, and Criminal Justice)
The more you have completed before the due date the more feedback I can provide you on the organization, sources, analysis, citations, etc. In addition, the way you think generally changes after you finish a full draft of a paper: you see how it flows, how it sounds, and how the thesis and argument relate to examples and analysis. It takes time to analyze your evidence and examples, so you need to put the paper together and then let it sit for a while, go back to it, and reread and rethink your work. Sometimes we need distance from our work so that we can see what we don’t see when we are deep in the writing process. It is important to note that your final paper will be graded in accordance with a provided rubric.
Your final research proposal should be organized according to the following general outline. You should introduce the topic and explain exactly what it is you are going to cover and what you are not covering. Explain why this subject is important. Is there a problem? If so, what exactly is it? What kind of evidence is there to confirm the problem? Is the issue related to any theory? Have there been any limitations to the methods that have been used to understand any of these issues? The main body of your paper should summarize the available literature on the subject.
The Final Research Proposal should be 10 pages long of content plus a bibliography page. If you hand in less than 10 pages the proportion of the paper missing will be deducted from your grade. Papers must be typed, double-spaced, 12 point-Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins, and use APA format for the citations. Points will be deducted from papers not meeting this format. The number of points deducted will be at the discretion of the instructor.
For your own education, and peace of mind maintain a copy of all coursework in a portfolio. You are expected to carefully proofread your work for grammar, spelling, and general writing mechanics.
For this assignment, you will create a one-two pages outline of your core assessment project. Before writing the outline read the OER: An outline is a map of your essay. Your outline will be graded in accordance with its corresponding rubric. Be sure to take a look at it prior to beginning this assignment.
Components that must be in your Outline:
- Title (should be the title of your paper)
- Major headings according to major sections of your paper
- Minor headings beneath each major heading as appropriate
Take this outline seriously. This will be the map I will follow to understand your final assignment.
|Literature Review Assignment|
|As we advance in this research endeavor (core assessment), the next step is to write a clear|
|literature review that will help better understand the topic/research problem being studied. In this|
|literature review, you will locate your own research within the context of existing literature (what|
|other scholars are saying about your topic, research question, and/or field of study).|
|1. Review all the reading materials for this Module|
|2. Following the examples provided by the instructor write up to two pages of literature review|
|related to the topic you have selected for Module two.|
|3. Your literature review should be based on at least 4 peer-reviewed scholarly references, no|
|including the class book|
|4. Use APA format for this assignment|
|5. This assignment is worth 10 points|
|6. The due date for this assignment: Tuesday November 9th, at 11:59 PM|
|7. Follow the Grading-Rubric for this assignment.|
|Introduction to the Assignment|
|For this assignment, my expectation is for you to apply a sociological theory (explanation) to the|
|phenomena that you have been researching throughout this core assessment project.|
|This assignment will require you to look at phenomena (issue/concern/problem) through the lens|
|of theory. Ask yourself, what would the theory predict (“have to say”) about the particular|
|situation you are researching.|
|You should be able to state the theory (the author’s main argument) in a sentence or two. Clearly|
|understanding all parts of a theory helps you ensure that you are applying the theory correctly to|
|your own research project. You need to be clear if the theory’s key argument applies to your|
(Here are some notes you can pick from)
Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory: An explanation of individual criminal behavior Differential Social Organization: the cause of differences in group or societal crime rates.
- Criminal behavior is learned.
- Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.
- The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs with intimate personal groups.
- When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes
- Techniques of committing a crime
- The specific directions of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
- The specific direction and motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.
- A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law. Over definitions unfavorable to violation of law.
- Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
- The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.
- Although criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, because noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.
Criminal behavior through a process of symbolic interaction with others
The content of learning, nor the process itself, is considered the significant element determining whether one becomes criminal or non-criminal.
Behavior principals are not limited to learning but are fundamental principle of performance, the acquisition, maintenance, and modification of human behavior.
The same learning process in a context of social structure, interaction, and situation produce both conforming and deviant behavior.
The difference lies in the direction of the balance of influences on behavior.
In other words: the probability that a person will engage in a criminal and deviant behavior is increased and the probability of their conforming to the norm is decreased when they differentially associate with others who commit criminal behavior.
Interactional dimension: the direct association and interactions with others who engage in certain kinds of behavior.
Normative dimension: patterns of norms and values to which an individual is exposed through this association.
The most important group are the primary ones of family and friends
Definitions: are one’s own attitudes or meanings that one attaches to given behavior. That is, they are orientations, rationalizations, definitions of other situations and other evaluative and moral attitudes that define the commission of an act as right or wrong, good, or bad, desirable, or undesirable, justifies or unjustified.
General definitions: religious, moral, and other conventional values and norms that are favorable to conforming behavior and unfavorable to committing any deviant or criminal act.
Specific definitions orient the person to particular act or series of acts. Smoking marijuana.
Positive definitions: beliefs or attitudes that make the behavior morally desirable or wholly permissible.
Neutralizing definitions: favor the commission of a crime by justifying or excusing it. I can’t help myself; I was born this way. I am always violent.
Differential reinforcement: refers to the balance of anticipated or actual rewards and punishments that follow or are consequences of behavior.
Positive reinforcement: the likelihood that an action will be taken is also enhanced when it allows the person to avoid or escape aversive or unpleasant events.
Negative reinforcement: Punishment may also be direct (positive), in which painful or
unpleasant consequences are attached to the behavior
Modalities of reinforcement: amount, probability, and frequency
Social reinforcement: peer, family, or other social context in which the actions take place.
Self-reinforcement: the individual exercises self-control, reinforcing and punishing one’s own behavior by taking the role of others, even when alone.
Imitation: the engagement of behavior after the observation of similar behavior in others.
Deviant peers reinforce each other deviancy
The effects of the social learning variables on adolescent alcohol and drug use and abuse are very strong
Similarly, cigarette smoking is highly correlated with the social learning variable.
Also, elderly drinking, using force by males to gain sexual contact or committing rape by college men
In some cases, parents directly train their children to commit deviant behavior. And, in general parent deviance and criminality are predictive of their children’s future delinquency on crime.
Another predictor of criminal behavior is the number of delinquent friends an individua has.
The Family Context and Social Learning
Risk and Resiliency Approach
OTHER THEORY OPTIONS-
Social Disorganzation Theoryhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Acy9-YLZXiw
Social disorganization theory has received a lot of attention within the criminology discipline since the theory was first introduced in 1942. Many studies in U.S. large cities have duplicated the findings of Shaw and McKay’s original study. Social disorganization theory studies can help government and law enforcement policy-makers make informed decisions from the evidence to form strategies that help prevent criminal activity in disadvantaged communities to make it safer for all.
Labeling theory provides a distinctively sociological approach that focuses on the role of social labeling in the development of crime and deviance. The theory assumes that although deviant behavior can initially stem from various causes and conditions, once individuals have been labeled or defined as deviants, they often face new problems that stem from the reactions of self and others to negative stereotypes (stigma) that are attached to the deviant label (Becker, 1963; Lemert, 1967). These problems in turn can increase the likelihood of deviant and criminal behavior becoming stable and chronic. In the words of Lemert (1967), deviant behavior can become “means of defense, attack, or adaptation” (p. 17) to the problems created by deviant labeling. Thus, being labeled or defined by others as a criminal offender may trigger processes that tend to reinforce or stabilize involvement in crime and deviance, net of the behavioral pattern and the social and psychological conditions that existed prior to labeling. Labeling theory has at times been hotly debated among deviance and crime researchers. The theory became widely accepted during the 1960s as a viable approach to crime and deviance, but a series of critiques that came out during the 1970s undermined its popularity. According to critics (Hirschi, 1980; Mankoff, 1971; Tittle, 1980; Wellford, 1975), labeling theory was vague, simplistic, and ideological, and empirical tests had failed to provide consistent support for the proposition that labeling reinforces deviant behavior. Since that time, however, scholars have pointed out that this critique led to a premature demise of labeling theory. According to these scholars (Palarma, Cullen, & Gersten, 1986; Paternoster & Iovanni, 1989), the critics of labeling theory overstated and simplified the claims made by labeling theory.
DIRECTIONS FOR METHOD ASSINGMENT-
In this section of your Final Research Proposal that I will call “Methods,” you will select a methodology or a process to gather information. This could be numerical (quantitative) such as surveys census, charts and so on. You could also select a non-numerical (qualitative) methodology such as in-depth interviews. Qualitative methodology is more interested in understanding people’s feelings.
This methods section of the Final Research Proposal is a very important piece of the research assignment because it will provide the information by which study validity is judged. The method section answers two main questions: 1) How the information to prove your point or argument will be collected or generated; 2) How this information will be analyzed.
In your paper clearly identify the following:
- How the data (information) will be obtained. For example, would you utilize secondary data from a census survey; or will you request information from a police department; or will you ask people that witness an event with some in-depth questions.
- The reasons why you chose a particular method or procedure. If you more inclined to work with numbers or with a quantitative method, you will select a survey that you can interpret the results in a statistical way. Or if you are more inclined to use a non-numerical approach or a qualitative method you to ask questions utilizing an interview with open-ended questions that you process to analyze those responses.
- The instrument or tool that you propose to collect or generate information. Here are some examples:
Focus groups (qualitative)
Respond to each point.
- Introduce the overall methodological approach to investigating your research problem. Is your study qualitative or quantitative or a combination of both (mixed method)?
- Indicate how the approach fits the overall research design. Your methods should have a clear connection with your research problem. In other words, make sure that your methods will actually address the problem you have been studying. One of the most common deficiencies found in research papers is that the proposed methodology is not suited to achieving the stated objective of your research paper.
- Describe the specific methods of data collection you are going to use. Surveys, interviews, questionnaires, observation, archival research. If you are analyzing existing data, such as a data set or archival documents, describe how it was originally created or gathered and by whom.
- Explain how you intend to analyze your results. Will you use statistical analysis? Or a more qualitative approach such as analyzing the information that you will collect from the interview responses?
- Address potential limitations. Are there any practical limitations that could affect your data collection? How will you attempt to control potential confounding variables and errors? If your methodology may lead to problems you can anticipate, state this openly and show why pursuing this methodology outweighs the risk of these problems cropping up. 6. Your paper should have at least three peer-reviewed references This assignment should be up to two pages long.
***YOU CAN INCLUDE THE THEORY ASSINGMENT AND METHODS ASSINGMENT INTO THE