United Arab Emirates.
Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates.
The overall assessment and should be between 3000 and 4000 words excluding references.
You are required to produce a research project examining a healthcare service in the light of the concepts of effectiveness, efficiency and equity. The healthcare service is defined as a health-related service provided by an organization (e.g. health authority) or a department (e.g. oncology department) located within an organization in a specific country including the UAE.
Any service but not in Germany )
The report should be organized in four sections after the Executive Summary:
This provides a summary of your aims, arguments, findings and recommendations. Place it first, but write it last.
This section should be brief and lay out what you are going to do in the report.
2. Description of the healthcare service that you are evaluating
This section should give readers a brief description of the healthcare service of the country.
3. Critical evaluation (This should form a substantial part of the report)
You are expected to:
o provide a critical evaluation of the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of the healthcare service of the country.
o provide a clear definition and measurement of these concepts.
o gather data and evidence for your arguments and analyses
o arrive at clear conclusions as to whether this service is effective, efficient and/or equitable.
o provide recommendations on how the service can be improved.
What can be concluded from the main arguments or findings of your critical evaluation of the service?
Healthcare systems are constantly changing and there is no single or up-to-date text which addresses all the issues, or indeed, can cover every single country. Instead there are many resources posted on the Blackboard site that include websites, empirical journal articles and links to agencies such as WHO. Please do not limit yourself to these resources – there are literally thousands of articles covering the healthcare systems of each of the countries of the world so you should not be short of information for any of the assessments.
Begin your research with these websites:
Probably the best place to look for current information regarding the different healthcare systems is the WHO Statistical Information System (WHOSIS) at the Global Health Observatory http://www.who.int/gho/en/
This is excellent for healthcare system profiles – The Commonwealth Fund http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Resources/2008/Mar/Health-Care-System-Profiles.aspx
Another excellent resource http://www1.paho.org/English/country.htm
Also try Grand Challenges in Global Health http://www.grandchallenges.org/
The online journal Health Affairs has full-text articles http://content.healthaffairs.org
Six key articles that relate to each of the six sessions on the workshop days are posted on the Blackboard site. As always, interesting articles that you find can be added to the Blackboard site Library tab for everyone to use. If you would like to add a document please email it to me.
Comparative Healthcare Systems
Description of healthcare service being evaluated
• effectiveness, efficiency and equity of the healthcare service
• clear definition and measurement of these concepts
• there is data and evidence to support arguments and analyses made
• there are clear conclusions as to whether this service is effective, efficient or equitable
• recommendations on how the service can be improved
Overall quality of the text
Quality of language, grammar, and referencing
1 = very poor, 2=poor, 3=satisfactory, 4=good, 5=excellent
Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates.
The modern society has witnessed increasing cases of cancer. The rising cases of the disease have led to development of strategies that minimize the continued rise of the disease. Notably, the paper focuses on evaluating the services that cancer patients receive in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In evaluating the state of oncology in the UAE, the paper describes the various services that cancer patients receive in the region. The paper also focuses on the issues of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of oncology services in the United Arab Emirates. The paper elucidates the various elements that revolved around the issues. Furthermore, the paper looks into the scale of effectiveness, efficiency and examined whether the services delivered by oncologist in the UAE match the expected global healthcare standards of equity.
To advance its quality, the paper argues that professionalism, use of modern facilities, innovation, and fair delivery of services are crucial in achievement of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity in administration of oncology services. In the critical analysis, the paper continues defining effectiveness, efficiency, equity and provides the tools that facilitate their measurement. The paper also provides data gathered from reports and validates its argument using the evidence from the data advanced by these reports. In concluding its argument, the paper provides various recommendations that will improve the quality of services administered by oncologists in the United Arab Emirates.
Description of Healthcare in the UAE.. 3
Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates. 4
Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity of Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates. 5
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Oncology Services. 6
Definition and Measurement of Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity in Oncology. 9
Data and Evidence of Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates. 11
Data Analysis and Interpretation. 13
Recommendations on Improvement of Oncology Services in the UAE.. 16
Description of Healthcare in the UAE
The United Arab Emirates is among the counties characterized by rapid development. Various sectors that have experienced the benefits of rapid development witnessed in the region include the healthcare. Apparently, the healthcare sector has received a considerable attention from stakeholders and the state. The state uses a considerable amount of money to fund its health sector and ensure that its citizens receive efficient and effective medical attention. According to Gulf News (2016), the government of UAE spends more than 400 million US dollars in funding its health sector. It is important to explain that the healthcare in the region is free, and as such, patients enjoy equitable and fair medical attention in various hospitals in the region. The superb nature of medical attention in the region has contributed to the rising number of medical tourists who visit the destination annually.
Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates
Oncologists play a very important role especially in modern societies characterized by changing lifestyles. Changing lifestyles has led to a range of diseases associated with obesity and other eating disorders. Cancer is one of the diseases that came in the wake of changing lifestyles. Although the disease claimed lives in historic periods, its prevalence has become worrying in modern times. Apparently, the disease has claimed reasonable number of lives and is ranked as one of the diseases that kill billions of people annually. The rising cases of cancer has compelled oncologist to develop strategies that focus in managing its prevalence in various parts of the world, which include the United Arab Emirates. It is within this context that the paper assesses the effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and the overall quality of oncology services offered in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Oncology services are very fundamental in modern societies. With the increasing instances of cancer, there is need for practitioners in the oncology departments to undertake activities that focus on improving the quality of medical care and attention accorded to cancer patients. The paper strives to provide an in-depth evaluation on the nature and quality of oncology services in the United Arab Emirates. It attempts to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity in delivery of oncology services. The focus of the paper is on the overall quality of oncology services that is availed to the patients across the region. To ensure that it successfully evaluates and acquires the requisite information on oncology services, the paper looks into the measurement tools and examines the nature of oncology services offered by various medical facilities across the region.
It is important to explain that oncology services should be exceptional in relation to quality owing to the magnitude of the ailment. Cancer is one of the ailments that have dire consequences and can lead to death if proper medical attention is not provided on time. As such, the paper focuses on the steps that the facilities in the region undertake to ensure that there are sufficient preventive, diagnosis and treatment measures. It is practical to explain that cancer is a challenge especially if the diagnosis is undertaken during the late stages. As a result, it is important for practitioners in the oncology department, to educate the citizens of their respective regions on the essence of engaging in preventive measures and undertaking practices that can facilitate early diagnosis. It is in the light of these factors that the paper evaluates and examines the quality of oncology services delivered in the UAE region.
Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity of Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates
In the United Arab Emirates, oncology services are quality oriented and smart. Although the scale of effectiveness is not well defined, the services accorded to patients suffering from cancer in UAE are up to the required standards. Fundamentally, health care practitioners in the region understand the grave nature of cancer. As such, they have put measures in place, which boost the quality of treatment and diagnosis offered by oncology department. The department has overtime adopted modern and technology oriented facilities in its quest to ensure that the services are up to date. Moreover, the practitioners hired in the departments follow the provisions adopted by the healthcare system, which compels the health sector to hire individuals who have the relevant expertise in the field. It is essential to explain that professionalism is one of cornerstones that propel the quality of healthcare in the UAE. Therefore, hiring individuals, who have exceptional expertise in the field of oncology, helps in amplifying the quality of healthcare in the region.
Apparently, the healthcare sector in the UAE is very critical on aspects that affect individuals in the region. Due to the increasing cases of cancer globally and in the UAE, the need to augment the quality of services is an aspect that medical practitioners focus on as they execute their services. To achieve the much-desired exceptional services and minimize the rising cases of cancer in the region, oncology departments have undertaken strategies that initiate prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cancer cases. It is important to explain that by employing strategies, which encourage adoption of preventive, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer in the region, the evidence of up to date services in oncology departments become practical. According to Gosselin, Dalton, and Penne (2015), oncology departments in the UAE have been improving overtime and are currently among the best. The rise in the quality of medical attention accorded to oncology patients emanates from the rising cases of cancer among the citizens living in the region.
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Oncology Services
The services provided by the oncology department in the UAE are efficient and effective. Since the region employs strategies that are modern and facilitate early diagnosis and contemporary technologies, effectiveness of the services is exceptional. Moreover, the expertise rendered by skilled healthcare practitioners, who work in the oncology department makes early diagnosis and treatment of cancer one of a kind. Some of the services rendered by skilled practitioners in oncology department include surgical and radiation services. The practitioners undertake services in facilities that follow state of the art design. It is important to state that the design of a medical facility enables high-end performance and delivery of services (Ray, Staples & Hannon, 2016). In hospitals such as Twama Al Ain, accommodation of patients takes place in cancer units, which can comfortably hold a high number of patients at a given time.
Moreover, the effectiveness of the services rendered becomes practical with practitioners, who deliver the service. Patients in need of treatment receive services from a team of more than 10 healthcare providers, a factor that is core in delivering efficient and effective service. To improve the quality of services and ensure effectiveness, oncology practitioners engage in a continuous research. By researching and looking for updated information related to the field of oncology, the practitioners are in a better place to match patient requirements with what they deliver. It is practical to explain that a mismatch in delivery of services leads to a bad reputation on the facility. Therefore, to cope with the ever-changing patient needs, practitioners engage in regular research so that they understand the dynamics in the healthcare sector. According to Cherry and Jacob (2015), changing trends that determine patient perception of quality characterize the healthcare sector. The explanation coins the relevance of research in improving the quality and effectiveness of services delivered by the oncologist in the UAE.
Professionalism and Use of Modern Facilities
Professionalism, use of modern facilities, innovation, and focus on fair delivery of services are strategies that practitioners in the oncology department undertake in order to achieve equity in administering care and treatment to patients suffering from cancer. Since the UAE is among the regions that are developing, application of modern technologies is an aspect that is practical in the society. As such, incorporating it into the healthcare department is not challenging. To ensure that patients receive the best services in a fair and equitable manner, practitioners in the field of oncology follow professionalism in execution of their services. The Economist Intelligence Unit (2015) explains that the provisions in the healthcare sector compel medical professionals to deliver services to all patients irrespective of their culture, race, ethnic backgrounds, and education levels. As such, by adhering to professionalism, all patients suffering from cancer or those, who need screening services, receive equal treatment and care from the practitioners.
Use of modern facilities is another strategy that improves service delivery and facilitates equal administration of care and attention to all patients. Facilities such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), linear accelerators, High Dose RateBrachytherapy (HDR), Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT), and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy are among the most developed in the field of oncology (Nagelkerk, 2006). By utilizing these facilities, patients receive high levels of medical attention, which have minimal side effects. For instance, facilities like IMRT, which ensure that the doses of radiation target cancerous cells without affecting tissues and other organs of the body. This implies that an individual receives treatment in a manner that is sustainable and less invasive. Notably, use of high end and modern facilities in treatment and screening of cancer in the United Arab Emirates leads to fairness and enhances the overall quality of oncology services accorded to patients.
Innovation and Focus on Fair Delivery of Oncology Services
Consequently, innovation and continuous research is a strategy that encourages fairness in delivery of oncology services. It is indispensable to clarify that through innovation, medical professionals can come up with productive ideas that amplify the quality of services delivered to cancer patients. Gosselin, Dalton, and Penne (2015) affirm that by engaging in continuous research and innovation, the expertise of a medical specialist augments an aspect that encourages fairness in administration of health care to patients. By utilizing the innovation and creativity, medical specialists can delivery fair services and store important information in using platforms that are free from illegal access.
Fair delivery of health care is a strategy that helps medical experts to dissect the nature of services that patients in need of screening and treatment receive from a medical facility. The motivation behind the fairness in service delivery emanates from the fact that modern patients match services with the present day guidelines. Apparently, fairness in service delivery prompts enlistment of talented medical practitioners and training of the current specialists. Ray, Staples, and Hannon (2016) explain that enlistment and training of medical experts normally takes place after a change in the patterns that influence the medical segment. By training and employing well-trained medical specialists, delivery of oncology services the healthcare sector in the UAE assumes an instrumental part vital in addressing the rising cases of cancer in the region.
Definition and Measurement of Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity in Oncology
The focus of effectiveness in oncology is on the attainment of exceptional results and advanced quality of medical care. When the outcomes in the department of oncology advance and match the expectations of contemporary healthcare in terms of service quality, then effectiveness is deemed as attained. Therefore, to achieve effectiveness in delivery of oncology services, the department of healthcare needs to utilize strategies that advance the quality of services administered to patients who need cancer treatment or screening. The Economist Intelligence Unit (2015) alludes that to measure the scale of effectiveness in medical facilities successfully, medical practitioners need to assess the extent to which services match patient expectation and global provisions. In most cases, patient expectations are in line with the services delivered by developed facilities, which are effective. As such, by aligning with the expectations, the facilities in the UAE are likely to achieve the desired levels of effectiveness. It is however, paramount to combine these expectations with the global provisions of healthcare. The provisions of global bodies that govern healthcare are always in line with modern developments that characterize the sector. As a result, by adhering to these provisions, the scale of effectiveness heightens.
On the other hand, efficiency implies well-structured utility of resources in a manner that facilitates successful execution of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of patients suffering from cancer. To achieve efficiency, medical facilities need to employ strategies that minimize wastage in the process of administering care and attention to patients in the oncology department (Ray, Staples & Hannon, 2016). By using modern facilities and hiring skilled employees, the oncology departments in the UAE strive towards achievement of efficiency. Some of the tools that are useful in assessment of the scale of efficiency include the amount of time taken to deliver services, the number of patients served, as well as the level of patient satisfaction after service delivery. When a facility has attained high levels of efficiency, the number of patients served at a given moment increases because the time taken serving them becomes minimal. When practitioners in the oncology department undertake their services in minimal time and handle several patients within a given time, the number of patients satisfied with the services increase and the reputation of the facility improves.
Consequently, equity implies delivery of healthcare to patients regardless of their race, gender, ethnic, and education levels. It implies the delivery of healthcare services without considering the various aspects that could otherwise hamper the quality of services accorded to a patient. In the perception of Gulf News (2016), provisions of healthcare in the global arena compel medical practitioners to deliver services in a manner that is devoid of inequalities and disparities. As such, by adhering to the components of equity, medical practitioners in the field of oncology screen, diagnose, and treat patients suffering from cancer, without discriminating on culture, race, ethnic background, religion, income, or education. Some of the factors that facilitate measurement of equity comprise the quality of services delivered to all patients and the magnitude of complaints received from patients.
When patients complain about discrimination, attainment of equity is in its lower stages, whereas when patients become satisfied with the services delivered by practitioners in the oncology department, the scale of equity is superb. To ensure equity and effectiveness in provision of cancer treatment in the UAE, the region has engaged in campaigns aimed at educating the public on the importance of early screening and detection. Individuals at risk are among the people focused during the campaigns. Due to the campaigns and regular screening, the number of individuals suffering from cancer has reduced. According to a report from Gulf News (2016), about 2,000 females and 1,000 males suffering from cancer were successfully treated. The successful treatment of the cancer patients is an increase unlike past years when the rates of mortality was high in relation to effective treatment. Furthermore, reduction in the number of people suffering from cancer is a result of education, regular screening, and high expertise in the oncology department.
Data and Evidence of Oncology Services in the United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates has employed various strategies that facilitate delivery of up to date oncology services. Since the issue of cancer has affected the global arena, which includes the UAE region, the institutions that amplify the quality of care have been improving overtime. According to reports from Gulf News (2016), the number of people who die from cancer has risen to a worrying scale of 8.2 billion. Moreover, the reports highlights that the amount of money spent to combat the problem is approximately $75 billion, which reflects about Dh260 billion. It is momentous to state that a reasonable percentage of those affected by the disease come from the UAE region. According to the report, about 1,000 cases came into the limelight during 2012 alone, a factor that substantiates the worrying nature of the disease. The data gathered from the report indicates the importance of amplifying the scale of service delivery in the oncology department. From the data, it is evident that timely strategies need establishment so that the rising cases of cancer receive timely redress.
To address the rising cases of cancer, UAE has put strategies in place. Some of the strategies include public education, adoption of contemporary facilities, and continuous research on matters that concern the disease. The report by Loney et al., (2013) explains that the cases of cancer have risen alongside the technological, social, and environmental changes. According to the report, cancer is among the leading cause of deaths in the country coming third after injuries and cardiovascular diseases. In his assertion, Loney et al., (2013) states that 16% of all deaths in the UAE are due to cancer, which is on the rise. Apparently, the factors that contribute to high instances of cancer in the UAE include the lifestyles and poor eating habits. A study conducted by Abu Dhabi Registry (2013) explains that 54.9% of women have are suffering from cancer unlike the males who only account for 46.1%. Consequently, the report asserts that the extent of cancer among the nationals has augmented to reach 70%, an aspect, which is worrying. In addition, the report states that colorectal, liver, breast, leukemia, and lung cancer top the list of cancers prevalent in the UAE.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
|Type of Cancer||% of Prevalence (2013): (Source Abu Dhabi Registry)|
Nationality (%) 2013 (Source Abu Dhabi Registry)
|Nationality (%) 2013|
Gender (%) 2013 (Source Abu Dhabi Registry)
|Gender (%) 2013|
From the findings, it is evident that
the number of individuals suffering from cancer in the UAE is rising.
Apparently, the number of women suffering from cancer is high than that of men.
Moreover, a high number of nationals are victims diagnosed with cancer as
opposed to expatriates. Consequently, the leading types of cancer comprise
liver, breast, lung, colorectal, and leukemia. Other types of cancer do not
pose as major killers but constitute a considerable scale of 53.5%.
Conclusions as to whether Oncology Services in the UAE are Effective, Efficient, and Equitable
Notably, the services provided by the oncology departments in the UAE meet the required standards of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The strategies instituted by the region in the wake of the rising cases of cancer have played a critical role in boosting the overall quality of services in oncology departments. To coin the relevance of the strategies instituted by the region to combat the disease, Lonely et al. (2013) allude that cases of cancer have decreased. The decreasing cases of cancer demonstrate the relevance of the crucial steps taken towards curbing the problem. In addition, the decrease substantiates the improvements made in the departments of oncology across the region. To improve the scale of effectiveness in the region, the departments of oncology have overtime adopted modern facilities, which result in timely diagnosis and early treatment of cancer patients. As such, mortality rate of people suffering from cancer has dropped an aspect that explains the rising scale of effectiveness in the region.
Consequently, the level of efficiency is improving. With adoption and implementation of strategies like public education, focus on at risk individuals, and use of modern technologies in the healthcare sector. The amount of time wasted has become minimal and the number of patients served at a given time has risen. The implication of increased services to patients and minimal wastage of time is efficiency. On the other hand, the issue of equity has also advanced. With the use of modern facilities and recruitment of skilled medical practitioners, who adhere to the provisions of professionalism, Issues relating to bias and discrimination have decreased. In coining the aspect of equity, Gulf News (2016) asserts that the number of individuals diagnosed and treated over the recent past comprise the natives and those visiting the country. This implies that the scale of equity in administration of services has become attainable.
Recommendations on Improvement of Oncology Services in the UAE
While the services provided by the oncology departments in the UAE are effective, efficient, and equitable, there is need to continue engaging in regular and consistent research. The essence of research on matters that relate to cancer transpires because of the ever-changing trends and dynamics in the healthcare sector. Moreover, by researching, practitioners in the field of oncology get insights into the various ways that help improve the quality of services administered to cancer patients. It is imperative to state that when practitioners engage in continued research, they can successfully cope with the trends presented by the society in respect to the changing technological, political, cultural, and social aspects.
Fundamentally, it is important that the practitioners administering oncology services in the UAE continue engaging in research so that they sustain effectiveness, efficiency, and equity in delivering services to patients suffering from the disease. The practitioners also need to amplify the scale of public education so that many people get information about the disease, its causes, prevention, and early diagnosis. It is vital to stress that some of the individuals, who visit the medical facilities late, do that because of insufficient knowledge that they have concerning the disease. As a result, research, and amplified public education are among the recommendations that should be undertaken by medical practitioners administering oncology services in the United Arab Emirates.
Oncology services are very fundamental in modern societies characterized by increasing cases of cancer. As a lifestyle disease, cancer has become a challenge all over the world. In the United Arab Emirates, cancer is one of the diseases that have led to loss of several lives. Loss of lives has initiated the establishment of strategies that focus on curbing the problem and preventing it from continued rise. Public education, use of modern facilities, and continued research on the disease are some of the strategies that the oncology departments in the region have adopted. The strategies have proved to be productive, and as such, cancer cases are gradually decreasing. The decrease in cases of cancer is one of the millstones that substantiate the essence of strategies utilized by oncology departments to address the issue of cancer and its effects. While the strategies are rewarding, there is need for practitioners to continue engaging in consistent research so that they match their services with the changes and dynamics in the healthcare sector.
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