Universal Healthcare Assignment Help.
Instructions: Length: 4-6 Pages, Double Spaced (Cover page, Table of Contents and Reference page DO NOT count towards total pages) 9.1.3 Content: Select a current healthcare issue. Write a summary of the issue, the history behind it (both sides if applicable), and conclude with your opinion on how this issue should be handled.
Research: Library Research Required (4 References from current, professional journals) Reference List and In-Text Citations Required Use APA Guide
Universal Healthcare of some the First World Countries
Universal healthcare is defined as health care system which provides health care and financial protection to all their citizens. Also, it is arranged to provide a specified package of benefits to all members of the society with the end goal of providing financial risk protection, improved access to health services, and improved clinical outcomes. According to WHO (World Health Org.), in developed nations there are thirty-three countries with universal health. Some of the countries include France, Canada, Japan, Germany, Italy, Singapore, Norway and Finland. This paper will compare and contrast Singapore, Italy, Japan, Norway, Finland, and Germany healthcare system (Altman)
In most first world countries, universal healthcare is broken down into following system type: single payer, two-tier, and insurance mandate. First, single Payer is coverage that provides insurance for all- residents or citizens and pays all the health care expense. Also, their providers can be public, private, or a combination of both. Next, two-tier is coverage that provides or mandates catastrophic or minimum insurance coverage for all the citizens but allowing the purchase of additional voluntary insurance or free-for-service care when desired. Lastly, the insurance mandate is system type that the government mandates that all citizens purchase insurance, whether from private, public or non-profit insurers. Also, in this kind of system, insurers are barred from injecting sick individuals, and individuals are required to purchase insurance, to prevent typical health care market failures from arising (Fottler and Malvey).
Singapore is a relatively small country with a population under 6million. However, according WHO, Singapore was ranked 6th in world’s health system in 2000 and 1st most efficient in the world in 2014. Also, Singapore’s universal health care is two-tier courage where the government ensures affordability of healthcare within the public health system through a system of compulsory saving, subsidies and price controls. Also, Singapore’s national health is that no medical service is provided free of charge, but their courage is intended to reduce the over-utilization of the healthcare system. And out-of-pocket charges vary considerably for each service and level of subsidy (Shaw).
In contrast, according to WHO, Japan is ranked 10th in world’s health system in 2000. Also, Japan has some of the world’s famous and accomplished doctors. Japan’s universal health care is single payer in which the government provides insurance for all residents or citizens and pays all medical expense except for co-pays and coinsurance. Also, their providers may be public, private or a combination of both, and in controlling cost, Japan tightly regulates health care industry with resin price. Therefore, fees for all medical services are set every two years by the health ministry and physicians. Also, if a physician tries to manipulate the system by ordering more procedures to generate income, the government will lower the fees for those procedures at the next round of fees setting. For example, the fees for an MRI was decreased by 35% in 2002 by the government, so a region neck MRI cost $98 but in the US, it is 1500 (Mcdonough).
Similarly, to Japan, Norway is single-payer Universal Healthcare system. Under this system, the government provides insurance for all residents and pays all health care expenses except for co-pays and coinsurance, and providers may be public, private or a combination of both (Shaw). In performance, according to WHO, Norway is ranked number 11 and third in Europe but has long waiting list.
Although the availability of public healthcare is universal in Norway, there are certain payment stipulations. All kids under 16 and pregnant or nursing women are given free healthcare regardless of the coverage they may have had in the previous situation. Also, they all must pay a deductible on average about 1500 U. S., and if anyone over 16 years needs specialized care such as physiotherapy, they will be required to pay an additional deductible with everything covered. Also, regarding emergency room admission, all immediate health care cost is covered, and if Norway’s hospitals are unable to treat a patient, then treatment abroad is arranged free of charge (Altman).
In contrast, to Norway, Ireland is a two-tier universal care system that provides or mandates catastrophic or minimum insurance coverage for all residents, while allowing the purchase of additional voluntary insurance or free-for-service care when desired. Also, according to the WHO, Ireland is ranked number 19, and their health care system is governed by the Health Act 2004 which established a new body to be responsible for providing health and personal social service to everyone living in Ireland.
Also, everyone living and visiting Ireland, who holds a European Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals, and this medical card covers free hospital care, GP visits, dental services, optical service, rural services, prescriptions drugs and medical. Also, private health insurance is available in which 40% of Ireland is covered. And that is the highest of any European country (Mcdonough).
Throughout the health care industry, there’s a call for greater transparency. The term transparency in health care has different meanings to different people. Transparency inhibits change like nothing else. car choice Information is available more than information on where to go for a lifesaving healthcare. It is important for consumers to get information regarding price and quality of health care service so as to help people make informed decisions about their care (Makary). It has however been difficult in the past for consumers to get this information. This is because patients are rarely informed of the real costs and quality of care until they receive. Furthermore, higher price does not necessarily equate to higher health care quality. Currently, consumers are faced with high deductible health plans and increasing out-of-pocket expenses which demand quality and cost information (Paul B. Batalden).
For a fee-for-service system, the physician bears no responsibility for the quality of care delivered by his or her referrals partners. Transparency has become a major challenge for the payers and the providers. They are prone to guarding their proprietary information jealously to maintain their competitive positions in price negotiations. Many hospitals face a lack of transparency in relation to costs. They also deal with the transparency issues on outcomes, what quality initiatives other departments are taking on and what lessons other agencies have learned from their quality improvement efforts. Lack of communication of these efforts lead to both cultural and technical barriers (Stoleberg).
In 1999, the institute of medicine released To Err is Human, a controversial report that estimated between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths annually were attributed to preventable medical errors. The methodology, conclusions, and implications of the study were undeniable. The Institute discovered that the errors were commonly caused by faulty systems, processes and conditions rather than by reckless acts or mistakes of an individual group or persons (Tabler).
Whether an individual is a payer or a provider, to achieve success in evolving the healthcare industry, it ultimately comes down to demonstrating high quality at a reasonable cost. The trend towards transparency means that the traditional walls dividing the organizations should be brought down (Miller). Finding ways of how to let people know how operations are running regarding cost and quality is a relatively simpler matter compared to the actual improvement of cost and quality. This involves finding the best way to derive actionable insights from all the data an individual organization has collected. Having this done successfully requires a commitment to transparency (Shanks).
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