Women’s and Men’s Health – Prostate Cancer
The American Cancer Society estimates that by the end of 2012, more than 226,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 241,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2012a; American Cancer Society 2012b). With such prevalence of women’s and men’s cancers, patient education and preventive services are essential. In clinical settings, advanced practice nurses must assist physicians in educating patients on risk factors, preventive services, and for patients diagnosed with cancer, on potential drug treatments. The clinical implications of women’s and men’s cancer greatly depend on early detection, which is primarily achieved through preventive services. In this Assignment, you consider the short-term and long-term implications of cancer and drug treatments associated with women’s and men’s health, as well as appropriate preventive services.
•Select a type of cancer associated with women’s or men’s health – prostate cancer in men. –
•Locate and review articles examining the type of cancer you selected.
•Review the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force article in the Learning Resources. Think about available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients at risk of this type of cancer.
•Select two of the following factors: genetics, ethnicity, Reflect on how these factors might impact decisions related to preventive services.
•Consider drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you selected including short-term and long-term implications of the treatments.
By Day 7
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
•Describe available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients at risk of the type of cancer you selected.
•Explain how the factors you selected might impact decisions related to preventive services.
•Describe drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you selected. Explain the short-term and long-term implications of these treatments.
Women’s and Men’s Health – Prostate Cancer
The American Cancer Society (2017) approximates 161,360 and 26,730 new cases and deaths caused by prostate cancer respectively. This makes prostate cancer the most prevalent type of cancer after skin cancer. Moreover, one in every 39 patients with prostate cancer dies of the disease. The prevalence and impact on the health and wellbeing of men in the US and around the globe demands effective intervention and treatment. Effective management of the cancer requires sufficient understanding of the available preventive services, treatment options, and the implications of the management/treatment methods. According to Rebbeck (2017), genetics and ethnicity among other factors influence the choice of preventive services. This essay analyses the recommended preventive services, the influence of ethnicity and genetics, drug treatment options, and the implications of such treatments.
There are different preventive services recommended for persons at risk of developing prostate cancer. Screening remains effective in early detection and treatment of prostate cancer. The major service involves the determination of the levels of serum PSA. Moreover, trans-rectal ultrasound and digital rectal examination can also be included in the screening (USPSTF, 2012). The early identification of the cancer or possibility of its development is critical for its effective management. Over-diagnosis and pseudo-disease are common occurrences with the PSA test. As such, the US Preventive Services Task Force discourages the recommendation of Prostate-specific antigen-based screening for the type of cancer. The PSA test’s accuracy and precision in finding prostate cancer are questionable since in some tests it gives false negative/positive results (CDC, 2016). The abnormality of the results may sometimes push persons without the cancer through unnecessary tests or cause unwarranted anxiety.
While deciding on what preventive services to consider is critical, various factors influence the process. According to Rebbeck (2017), genetics and ethnicity may influence the decision. People with a positive family history of the cancer are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. As a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, familial aggregation of the cancer renders such persons susceptible to developing prostate cancer. For instance, persons with the BRCA2 and HOXB13 mutations show higher susceptibility to the disease (Giria & Beebe-Dimmer, 2016). Patients with positive family history are advised to seek early screening for effective identification and management of the prostate cancer. Additionally, African descent men populations have higher rates of prostate cancer (Rebbeck, 2017). Health care providers are more likely to advise men of African descent and those with family history to use preventive services.
Drug treatments for prostate cancer include chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Chemotherapy involves the application of anti-cancer drugs through injections into a vein or administration by mouth. It is effective in managing and treating prostate cancer if it has spread beyond the prostate gland. Some drugs used include docetaxel, cabazitaxel, mitoxantrone, and estramustine. On the other hand, hormone therapy involves the suppression of androgens, which stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells. The treatment is considered when the cancer has spread to the point that surgery or radiation are ineffective. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists/antagonists are used for lowering the production of testosterone. LHRH agonist drugs include leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin, and histrelin while an example of the antagonist drug is degarelix. Moreover, anti-androgens may include flutamide, nilutamide, and bicalutamide, which are taken as daily pills.
The drugs used for prostate cancer treatment
have numerous short-term and long-term effects. Chemotherapy drugs may cause
hair loss, reduced appetite, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, mouth sores, and
fatigue, increased susceptibility to infections, and easy bruising among
others. Further, hormone therapy drugs including the LHRH agonists/antagonists
and anti-androgens cause reduced/absent sexual urge, impotence or erectile
dysfunction, shrinking of the penis or testicles, osteoporosis, anemia, fatigue,
decreased muscle mass, and weight gain among others (ACS, 2017).
ACS. (2017). Key Statistics for Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from American Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/key-statistics.html
ACS. (2017). Treating Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from American Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/treating.html
CDC. (2016, July 19). Should I Get Screened for Prostate Cancer? Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/prostate/basic_info/get-screened.htm
Giria, V. N., & Beebe-Dimmer, J. L. (2016). Familial prostate cancer. Seminars in Oncology (43) 5, 560-565.
Rebbeck, T. R. (2017). Prostate Cancer Genetics: Variation by Race, Ethnicity, and Geography. Seminars in Radiation Oncology (27) 1, 3-10.
USPSTF. (2012). Final Recommendation Statement: Prostate Cancer – Screening. Retrieved from U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/prostate-cancer-screening#Pod1